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Since that time, a large number of laboratory investigations have demonstrated a wide range of myocardial protective effects with Na+/H+ exchange inhibitors in quite a large number of animal species and using a variety of experimental models. The experimental models that are generally most applicable to surgery are those of global ischemia and more specifically, global ischemia or cardioplegic solutions of some sort are used.
This study from Dr Avkiran's lab used various durations of ischemia at different temperatures so as to achieve very poor recovery of function in this working heart model with crystalloid cardioplegia alone. When cariporide was added for the first 5 minutes of reperfusion, there was significantly improved recovery of function. However, the best recovery of function was seen when the drug was added to the cardioplegic solution itself and so present during ischemia.