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Cell injury by complement occurs as a consequence of activation of either the classical or the alternative pathway on the surface of a cell. The "killer" molecule is the MAC. The MAC constitutes a supramolecular organisation that is composed of approximately twenty protein molecules.

KATP channels, which open when cytosolic ATP concentration ATP falls below a critical level, are present at high density in the heart. Activation of KATP channels shortens action potential duration, thus decreasing contractility and conserving energy during periods of ischemia .

The Na+/H+ exchangers are a family of membrane proteins. They transport Na+ ions and H+ ions in opposite directions on a one-for-one basis, so in an electroneutral manner.