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Since many studies show that dietary fat increases the risk of prostate cancer and since several studies show that smokers are more likely to have a diet high in fat, the observed association between smoking and prostate cancer may be due to uncontrolled confounding by dietary fat only 8 studies either adjusted for it or found no association between dietary fat and prostate cancer. Smokers may receive less aggressive treatment for their prostate cancer compared to non-smokers and this may have accounted for the higher mortality.