methods were used to identify the studies discussed in the review article (Hickey et al
2001 Epidemiologic Reviews 23(1): 115-125) and in this lecture. Not included in this
review were doctorate theses, case reports, case series or ecologic studies, studies
published in a language other than English or studies that while commenting on prostate
cancer and smoking did not provide a formal estimate of risk or enough data to calculate
one (13 controlled studies were excluded for the latter reason).