Current Smoking in Prospective Cohorts and Nested Case-Control Studies that used Fatal Prostate
Cancer Cont’d. Most of these studies that used fatal prostate cancer as the
outcome factor, in contrast, found that current smoking significantly increased the
risk of prostate cancer. The Health Professionals cohort found an increased risk of
metastatic prostate cancer (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.05-3.11) and fatal prostate cancer (RR 2.06,
95% CI 1.08-3.90) in men who had smoked 15+ pack-years of cigs in preceding 10 years
(Giovannucci et al 1999 Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8: 277-82).