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23 prospective cohorts, 5 nested case-control studies, 1 retrospective cohort and 36 case-control studies were identified that reported data for prostate cancer (pc) and smoking. The effect of current smoking on prostate cancer varied from protective odds ratio 0.38 (Keller and Howe 1994) to increasing the risk 2.9 times (Daniell 1993). Likewise with past smoking: from 0.6 (Veierod et al 1997; DeStefani et al 1995) to 1.9 (Hsing et al 1990). The quality of studies also varied greatly: the hospital-based case-control study by Wynder et al (1971) considered the poorest while the prospective cohort study of US health professionals the best (Giovannucci et al 1999).