dose-response, pc prostate cancer. The Iowa cohort (Cerhan et al 1997 Cancer Causes
Control 8: 229-38) and the Swedish cohort of construction workers (Adami et al 1996 Int J
Cancer 67: 764-8) found a significant positive dose-response relation between current
smoking and risk of incident prostate cancer. The US veterans cohort (Hsing et al 1991 Am
J Epidemiol 133: 437-41) found a significant positive trend between current smoking and
fatal prostate cancer while the Health Professionals cohort found a significant
dose-response relation between smoking in the previous 10 years and risk of metastatic and
fatal prostate cancer (Giovannucci et al 1999).