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Webulator Example: Step 1: Observe Z for Kappa = 3.72 (z score) Step 2: Determine 1tailed area between mean and z from Appendix B Statistical Table from Gravetter and Wallnau, 1992) = 0.4999 Step 3: Calculate 2tailed area: 2 x 0.4999 = 0.9998 Step 4: Calculate pvalue: 1 – 0.9998 = 0.0002 Step 5: State significant agreement between between clinical test and gold standard  Kappa Rule: If z for Kappa is > 1.96, then significant agreement between clinical test and gold standard. 