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- Webulator Example:

Step 1: Observe Z for Kappa = 3.72 (z score)

Step 2: Determine 1-tailed area between mean and z from Appendix B Statistical Table from Gravetter and Wallnau, 1992) = 0.4999

Step 3: Calculate 2-tailed area: 2 x 0.4999 = 0.9998

Step 4: Calculate p-value: 1 0.9998 = 0.0002

Step 5: State significant agreement between between clinical test and gold standard

- Kappa Rule: If z for Kappa is > 1.96, then significant agreement between clinical test and gold standard.