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Portrait by
Josephine Norton



Includes direct links to my papers.

A synopsis of my research in history and philosophy of physics and general philosophy of science, with links to papers.

Some things are just too much fun.

Complete syllabi for my courses and the complete text of "Einstein for Everyone."

Some lecture series I have given.

Editing and Publishing

Director,Center for Philosophy of Science and
Distinguished Professor, Department of History and Philosophy of Science
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh PA USA 15260
412 624 1051
non equilibrium space The idea of a thermodynamically reversible process is central to thermodynamics. Yet essentially all descriptions of them over nearly two centuries are internally contradictory. They consist of equilibrium states, which are by definition unchanging in time; yet still they still change in time. I review the history and offer a solution. "The Impossible Process: Thermodynamic Reversibility" Draft
Brownian fragment Thermodynamically reversible processes cannot be completed in systems at molecular scales. They are fatally disrupted by fluctuations. This paper reviews the general result and computes two cases in detail. "Thermodynamically Reversible Processes in Statistical Physics ." Draft
mona lisa Non-trivial calculi of inductive inference are shown to be incomplete. That is, it is impossible for a calculus of inductive inference to capture all inductive truths in some domain, no matter how large, without resorting to inductive content drawn from outside that domain. Hence inductive inference cannot be characterized merely as inference that conforms with some specified calculus. "A Demonstration of the Incompleteness of Calculi of Inductive Inference" Draft

"The Ideal of the Completeness of Calculi of Inductive Inference: An Introductory Guide to its Failure" Draft
Michelson interferometer The replicability of experiment, the gold standard of evidence, is not supported by a universal principle of replicability in inductive logic. A failure of replication may not impugn a credible experimental result; and a successful replication can fail to vindicate an incredible experimental result.The evidential import of successful replication of an experiment is determined by the prevailing background facts. Their success has fostered the illusion of a deeper, exceptionless principle. "Replicability of Experiment," Theoria, 30(No. 2) (2015), pp. 229-248. Download.
1, 3, 5, 7, ... ? Standard accounts of inductive inference are unstable, meriting skeptical attack. They have misidentified its fundamental nature. Accounts of inductive inference should not be modeled on those of deductive inference that are formal and non-contextual. Accounts of inductive inference should be contextual and material. I summarize the case for a material theory of induction. "A Material Defense of Inductive Inference." Download.
Galileo triangle The inductive problem of extending the sequence 1, 3, 5, 7, is solved when these numbers are the ratios of the incremental distances fallen in successive unit times. The controlling fact is Galileo's assumption that these ratios are invariant under a change of the unit of time. It admits few laws and only one is compatible with the two-numbered initial sequence 1, 3. "Invariance of Galileo's Law of Fall under a Change of the Unit of Time." Download.
Fall in a gravitational field Curie's principle asserts that every symmetry of a cause manifests as a symmetry of the effect. It can be formulated as a tautology that is vacuous until it is instantiated. However instantiation requires us to know the correct way to map causal terminology onto the terms of a science. Causal metaphysics has failed to provide a unique, correct way to carry out the mapping. Thus successful or unsuccessful instantiation merely reflects our freedom of choice in the mapping. "Curie's Truism." Prepared for Symposium "Curie's Principle: The Good, the Bad, and the Symmetry Violating," PSA2014: Philosophy of Science Biennial Meeting, November 6-9, 2014, Chicago, IL. Download.
Sydney Harbour Bridge. I was born and grew up in Sydney Australia. I studied chemical engineering at the University of New South Wales (1971-74) and then worked for two years as a technologist at the Shell Oil Refinery at Clyde, Sydney. I then switched fields and began a doctoral program in the School of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of New South Wales (1978-1981). My dissertation was on the history of general relativity.

When it was finished, I visited at the Einstein Papers Project (1982-83) when the Papers were located at Princeton University Press with John Stachel as editor.

In September 1983, I came to Pittsburgh as a visitor in the Center for Philosophy of Science/visiting faculty member in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh. I've been in the Department of HPS ever since. I was promoted to full professor in 1997, served as Chair in 2000-2005 and was promoted to Distinguished Professor in 2014. I am now the Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science, starting in September 2005.




Cathedral of Learning
Updated November 2015 and possibly later too.