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Department of History and
Philosophy of Science
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh PA USA 15260
Phone: 412 624 5896
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See Goodies in my homepage for
more popular writing on:
"Chasing the Light: Einstein's Most Famous Thought Experiment"
"How did Einstein Discover the Relativity of Simultaneity?"
"From the Magnet and Conductor to the Relativity of Simultaneity"
"Atoms Entropy Quanta: Einstein's Statistical Physics of 1905"
"The Fastest, Simplest, Quickest Derivation Ever of the Ideal Gas Law"
"Which is the Most Cited of Einstein's Papers of 1905?"
"How Big is an Atom"
Einstein, More Generally
"How Einstein Changed the Way We Think about Science"
"How Did Einstein Think?"
"A Peek into Einstein's Zurich Notebook"
"Einstein for Everyone"
Philosophy of Physics
"The Three Principal Problems of Philosophy of Modern Physics"
"Time Really Passes"
When a Good Theory meets a Bad Idealization: The Failure of the Thermodynamics of Computation.
No Go Result for the Thermodynamics of Computation
The Simplest Exorcism of Maxwell's Demon No Information Needed
What is Time?
The Burning Fuse Model of Unbecoming In Time
Confusions over Reduction and Emergence in the Physics of Phase Transitions.
You are not a Boltzmann Brain.
Philosophy of Science
"What is the Lift of an Infinite Helicopter Rotor at Rest?"
"The Dome: A Simple Violation of Determinism in Newtonian Mechanics"
"Induction without Probabilities"
"What Inductive Logics are There?"
"The Point of Intractability"
Some draft chapter for a book, The Material Theory of Induction, now in preparation:
Part I. The Local Structure of Inductive Inference, Understood Materially
1. The Material Theory of Induction Stated and Illustrated. Draft
2. What Powers Induction Inference? Draft.
3. Replicability of Experiment. Draft.
4. Analogy. Draft.
5. Epistemic Virtues and Epistemic Values: A Skeptical Critique. Draft
6. Simplicity as a Surrogate. Draft.
7. Simplicity in Model Selection. Draft.
Part II. The Global Structure of Inductive Inference, Understood Materially
Part III. Why Not Bayes?
A Quantum Inductive Logic. Draft.
... more coming.
"How to Build an Infinite Lottery Machine," Download draft.
"The Worst Thought Experiment," Prepared for The Routledge Companion to Thought Experiments. Eds. Michael T. Stuart, James Robert Brown, and Yiftach Fehige. Download draft.
"How Einstein Did Not Discover" Download draft.
"Maxwell's Demon Does not Compute." Prepared for Michael E. Cuffaro and Samuel C. Fletcher, eds., Physical Perspectives on Computation, Computational Perspectives on Physics. Cambridge University Press. ." Download draft.
"Thermodynamically Reversible Processes in Statistical Physics ." Download draft. Download extended version that includes an appendix not in the journal version on processes with a Brownian particle.
"The Impossible Process: Thermodynamic Reversibility." Download draft.
"The Ideal of the Completeness of Calculi of Inductive Inference: An Introductory Guide to its Failure," Manuscript Download draft.
"A Demonstration of the Incompleteness of Calculi of Inductive Inference," Manuscript. Download draft.
"A Material Defense of Inductive Inference," Manuscript. Download draft.
"Curie's Truism." Philosophy of Science. Download preprint.
Prepared for Symposium "Curie's Principle: The Good, the Bad, and the Symmetry Violating," PSA2014: Philosophy of Science Biennial Meeting, November 6-9, 2014, Chicago, IL.
“Philosophy in Einstein’s Science," Alternatives to Materialist Philosophies of Science, Philip MacEwen, ed., The Mellen Press. Download draft.
"Dense and Sparse Meaning Spaces: Comments on Travis Norsen, 'Scientific Cumulativity and Conceptual Change: The Case of Temperature.'" in Richard M. Burian and Allan Gotthelf, eds., Concepts, Induction, and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge, forthcoming. Download draft.
Einstein for Everyone: a web*bookTM A thirty nine chapter online text for my course HPS 0410 Einstein for Everyone. Routinely updated. Read.
"The Burning Fuse Model of Unbecoming in Time," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics. 52 (2015), pp. 103-105. Download. See Draft. See Goodies page. Talk Powerpoints.
"Replicability of Experiment," Theoria, 30(No. 2) (2015), pp. 229-248. Download open access or here. Download draft
“What Can We Learn about the Ontology of Space and Time from the Theory of Relativity?” L. Sklar (ed.), Physical Theory: Method and Interpretation, Oxford University Press, 2015. pp. 185-228. Download final. Download latest version with redrafted figures. Preprint of early version on philsci-archive Later Version
"Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity and the Problems in the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies that Led him to it." pp. 72-102 in Cambridge Companion to Einstein, M. Janssen and C. Lehner, eds., Cambridge University Press. Download final without reference list. Download preprint with reference list as pdf or doc.
"On Brownian Computation," International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series. 33 (2014), pp. 1460366-1 to 1460366-6. Download final draft, Earlier incomplete draft.
"Invariance of Galileo's Law of Fall under a Change of the Unit of Time." Download.
"The Simplest Exorcism of Maxwell's Demon: The Quantum Version," http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/10572/ Also download here.
"A Material Dissolution of the Problem of Induction." Synthese. 191 (2014), pp. 671-690. Download final. Download draft. Download earlier version. Download still earlier version.
"Infinite Idealizations,"European Philosophy of Science--Philosophy of Science in Europe and the Viennese Heritage: Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook, Vol. 17 (Springer: Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London-New York), pp. 197-210. Download draft final.
"The End of the Thermodynamics of Computation: A No Go Result," Philosophy of Science. 80, (2013), pp. 1182-1192. Download. Download draft, August 20, 2013.
"All Shook Up: Fluctuations, Maxwell's Demon and the Thermodynamics of Computation" Entropy 2013, 15, 4432-4483 (open access) or download here.
"Brownian Computation is Thermodynamically Irreversible." Foundations of Physics. 43 (2013), pp 1384-1410. Download final, draft.
"Author's Reply to 'Landauer Defended'," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 44 (2013), p. 272. Download.
Reply to James Ladyman and Katie Robertson, "Landauer defended: Reply to Norton,"Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 44 (2013), pp. 263-271.
"Chasing the Light: Einstein's Most Famous Thought Experiment," Thought Experiments in Philosophy, Science and the Arts, eds., James Robert Brown, Mélanie Frappier and Letitia Meynell, New York: Routledge, 2013. pp. 123-140. Final. Download draft.
(with Claus Beisbart) "Why Monte Carlo Simulations Are Inferences and Not Experiments," International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (No. 4, December 2012), pp. 403-422. Final. Draft at philsci-archive
"Einstein as the Greatest of the Nineteenth Century Physicists," pp. 142-51 in Proceedings, Seventh Quadrennial Fellows Conference of the Center for Philosophy of Science (12-14 June 2012; Mugla, Turkey). Download. Or download from philsci-archive.
(with Bryan Roberts) “Galileo's Refutation of the Speed-Distance Law of Fall Rehabilitated,” Centaurus.54 (2012) pp. 148-164. Download. Preprint. Earlier version on philsci-archive.
(with Bryan Roberts) "The Scaling of Speeds and Distances in Galileo's Two New Sciences: A Reply to Palmerino and Laird," Centaurus, 54 (2012) pp. 182-191. Download.
"Approximation and Idealization: Why the Difference Matters" Philosophy of Science, 79 (2012), pp. 207-232. Download. Download latest draft. Earlier draft on philsci-archive.pitt.edu.
“Paradoxes of Sailing," Ch. 13, pp.148-63, in Sailing: Philosophy for Everyone. Patrick A. Goold, Ed., Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Download final. Download draft.
"Waiting for Landauer" Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 42(2011), pp. 184-198. Download final. Download draft of January 22, 2011. Earlier draft on
"Addendum: Units in the one-molecule gas - piston system." August 5, 2015. Download.
For a 650 word version of a principal result see No Go Result for the Thermodynamics of Computation and for an informal narrative, see When a Good Theory meets a Bad Idealization: The Failure of the Thermodynamics of Computation.
"Challenges to Bayesian Confirmation Theory," Philosophy of Statistic, Vol. 7: Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay and Malcolm R. Forster (eds.) Elsevier,2011. Download final. Download draft.
"Observationally Indistinguishable Spacetimes: A Challenge
for Any Inductivist." In G. Morgan, ed., Philosophy of Science Matters:
The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein. Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 164-176. Download. Download draft.
This paper is a revision of "The Inductive Significance of Observationally Indistinguishable Spacetimes." http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00004505/ or download slightly revised version.
"History of Science and the Material Theory of Induction: Einstein's Quanta, Mercury's Perihelion." European Journal for Philosophy of Science. 1(2011), pp. 3-27. Download final. Download draft. Earlier version Download.
"Little boxes: A simple implementation of the
Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger result for spatial degrees of freedom"
American Journal of Physics, 79(2)(2011), pp. 182-188.
Download final version or latest manuscript.
Earlier version: "Little Boxes: The Simplest Demonstration of the Failure of Einstein's Argument for the Incompleteness of Quantum theory" Download earlier version.
Reprinted in Virtual Journal of Quantum Information, 11(2)(2011). http://www.vjquantuminfo.org/
"There are No Universal Rules for Induction," Philosophy
of Science, 77 (2010) pp. 765-77. Download. Download latest draft.
Prepared for Symposium “Induction Without Rules” PSA 2008: Philosophy of Science Biennial Meeting, November 2008, Pittsburgh PA. Pre-symposium version on philsci-archive.
This last paper incorporates material from an earlier now orphaned manuscript, "Induction without Probabilities." Download.
"Cosmic Confusions: Not Supporting versus Supporting
Not-". Philosophy of Science. 77 (2010), pp. 501-23. Download. Download manuscript.
This manuscript is an extensively revised version of "Cosmology and Inductive Inference: A Bayesian Failure," Prepared for “Philosophy of Cosmology: Characterising Science and Beyond” St. Anne’s College, Oxford, September 20-22, 2009.http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00004866/ or Download.
"Time Really Passes." Humana.Mente: Journal of Philosophical Studies, 13(April, 2010), pp. 23-34. Download from http://www.humanamente.eu/PDF/Issue13_Paper_Norton.pdf or here. Download draft. An earlier version is the Goodies page, Time Really Passes.
"Deductively Definable Logics of Induction." Journal
of Philosophical Logic. 39 (2010), pp. 617-654. Download final.
For a less formal development, see "What Logics of Induction are There?" in Goodies.
"How Hume and Mach Helped Einstein Find Special Relativity,"
pp. 359-386 in M. Dickson and M. Domski, eds., Discourse on a New Method:
Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court, 2010. Download. Download addendum, 2009, with
Drafts: Preprint on philsci-archive. Download later draft (July 1, 2005).
"A Survey of Inductive Generalization." download.
"Is There an Independent Principle of Causality in Physics?" British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 60 (2009), pp. 475-86. Download final version. Earlier version on philsci-archive.pitt.edu; later version.
"The Dome: An Unexpectedly Simple Failure of Determinism"
Proceedings of the 2006 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science
Association, Philosophy of Science, 75, No. 5, (2008). pp. 786-98.. Download original longer version. Download shorter version prepared for publication. Final.
"Why Constructive Relativity Fails," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 59 (2008), pp. 821-834. Manuscript. Free download from Oxford Journals as html or pdf. Or try here.
"Ignorance and Indifference." Philosophy of Science, 75 (2008), pp. 45-68. Download final version. Download long draft. Download short draft.
"Must Evidence Underdetermine Theory?" in The Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of Practice: Science and Values Revisited, M. Carrier, D. Howard and J. Kourany, eds., Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2008, pp. 17-44. Preprint on philsci-archive.pitt.edu; final version here.
"Einstein's Miraculous Argument of 1905: The Thermodynamic Grounding of Light Quanta" in C. Joas, C. Lehner and J. Renn (eds.), HQ1: Conference on the History of Quantum Physics: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. Preprint 350. Vol. 1, pp. 63-78. Download draft. Download final.
"Discovering the Relativity of Simultaneity: How Did Einstein Take 'The Step'," Trans. to Chinese, Wang Wei. In Einstein in a Trans-cultural Perspective. Eds. Yang Jiang, Liu Bing. Tsinghua University Press, forthcoming. (Estimated date of publication: undetermined.) Download Chinese text. Download English text.
"Probability Disassembled" British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 58 (2007), pp. 141-171. Download preprint. Download.
"Disbelief as the Dual of Belief." International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 21(2007), pp. 231-252. Download. Download preprint.
"Do the Causal Principles of Modern Physics Contradict Causal Anti-Fundamentalism?" pp. 222-34 in Thinking about Causes: From Greek Philosophy to Modern Physics. eds. P. K. Machamer and G. Wolters, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007.Download preprint. Download final.
"What Was Einstein's 'Fateful Prejudice'?" in Juergen Renn (ed.), The Genesis of General Relativity. Vol. 2 Einstein's Zurich Notebook: Commentary and Essays. Springer, 2007, pp. 715-83. Download.
With Juergen Renn, Tilman Sauer, Michel Janssen, John Stachel, “A Commentary on the Notes on Gravity in the Zürich Notebook” in Juergen Renn (ed.), The Genesis of General Relativity. Vol. 2 Einstein's Zurich Notebook: Commentary and Essays. Springer, 2007 pp. 489-714.
"The Formal Equivalence of Grue and Green and How It Undoes the New Riddle of Induction." Synthese, (2006) 150: 185-207. Preprint of older version on philsci-archive.pitt.edu Later version. Latest.
"Atoms Entropy Quanta: Einstein's Miraculous Argument of 1905," Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 37 (2006), pp. 71-100. Preprint on philsci-archive. Latest.
"A Little Survey of Induction," in P. Achinstein, ed., Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories and Applications. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1905. pp. 9-34. Preprint on philsci-archive.pitt.edu , Final version
"Eaters of the Lotus: Landauer's Principle and the Return of Maxwell's Demon." Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 36 (2005), pp. 375-411. Download preprint. Download final.
"A Conjecture on Einstein, the Independent Reality of Spacetime Coordinate Systems and the Disaster of 1913," pp. 67-102 in A. J. Kox and J. Einsenstaedt, eds., The Universe of General Relativity. Einstein Studies Volume 11. Boston: Birkhaeuser, 2005. Download preprint. Download final version.
"Einstein's Investigations of Galilean Covariant Electrodynamics prior to 1905," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 59 (2004), pp. 45-105. Download
"On Thought Experiments: Is There More to the Argument?" Proceedings of the 2002 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Philosophy of Science,71 (2004) pp. 1139-1151.Latest version Preprint on philsci-archive.
"Why Thought Experiments Do Not Transcend Empiricism" pp. 44-66 in Christopher Hitchcock (ed.) Contemporary Debates in the Philosophy of Science. Blackwell, 2004. Download final version. Preprint on philsci-archive.
"The n-Stein Family" pp. 55-67 in Juergen Renn (ed.) Revisiting the Foundations of Relativistic Physics: Festschrift in Honor of John Stachel. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 234. Kluwer, 2003. Download.
"General Covariance, Gauge Theories and the Kretschmann Objection," pp. 110-123 in K. Brading and E. Castellani, Symmetries in Physics: Philosophical Reflection. Cambridge University Press, 2003. Preprint available on philsci-archive. Or non-inverted pdf.
"Causation as Folk Science," Philosophers' Imprint Vol. 3, No. 4 http://www.philosophersimprint.org/003004/; reprinted in pp. 11-44, H. Price and R. Corry, Causation, Physics and the Constitution of Reality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Download abstract. Download paper without abstract. Download Italian translation by Gio Matteo Risso Ricci.
"A Material Theory of Induction" Philosophy of Science, 70(October 2003), pp. 647-70. Download
"Einstein's Triumph over the Spacetime Coordinate System: A Paper Presented in Honor of Roberto Torretti," Dialogos, 79 (2002), pp. 253-62. Preprint available on philsci-archive.
With Jonathan Bain. "What Should Philosophers of Science Learn from the History of the Electron." pp. 451-65 in J. Z. Buchwald and A. Warwick, Histories of the Electron. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2001. Download.
"What Can We Learn about the Ontology of Space and Time from the Theory of Relativity? A synopsis" pp. 281-86 in Cuadernos de Ontologia: Ontology Studies: Physis proceedings. No. 1-2, 2001. San Sebastian. Preprint on philsci-archive.
"How We Know About Electrons," pp. 67- 97 in R. Nola and H. Sankey, eds., After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend; Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method. Dordrecht Kluwer. (refereed) Download.
"What can we Learn About Physical Laws from the Fact that We Have Memories Only of the Past?," International Studies in the Philosophy of Science. 14 (2000), pp. 11-23. Download.
With Joseph S. Alper, Mark Bridger and John Earman, "What is a Newtonian System? The Failure of Energy Conservation and Determinism in Supertasks," Synthese, 124(2000), pp. 281-293. Download
"'Nature in the Realization of the Simplest Conceivable Mathematical Ideas¹: Einstein and the Canon of Mathematical Simplicity," Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 31 (2000), pp.135-170. Download.
"Geometries in Collision: Einstein, Klein and Riemann." in J. Gray, ed., The Symbolic Universe. Oxford University Press, pp.128-144. Download
"The Cosmological Woes of Newtonian Gravitation Theory," in H. Goenner, J. Renn, J. Ritter and T. Sauer, eds., The Expanding Worlds of General Relativity: Einstein Studies, volume 7, Boston: Birkhäuser, pp. 271-322. (refereed). Download.
"A Quantum Mechanical Supertask" Foundations of Physics, 29, pp. 1265-1302. Download.
"When the Sum of Our Expectations Fails Us: The Exchange Paradox." Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 78 (1998), pp.34-58. Download
With John Earman, "Exorcist XIV: The Wrath of Maxwell's Demon." Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Part I "From Maxwell to Szilard" 29(1998), pp.435-471; Part II: "From Szilard to Landauer and Beyond," 30(1999), pp.1-40. Download Part I Download Part II
With John Earman "Comments on Laraudogoitia's 'Classical Dynamics, Indeterminism and a Supertask," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 49, 1998, pp.123-33. Download
With Arthur Fine and Don Howard, "Einstein, Albert" Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Edward Craig, editor), Routledge, 1998.
"The Hole Argument," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (Revisions, August 2007.)
How Science Works (pp.477) McGraw-Hill/ Primis Custom Publishing. ISBN 0-07-230800-1
Edited volume, with John Earman, The Cosmos of Science, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.
"Are Thought Experiments Just What You Thought?" Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 26, pp. 333-66. Download.
With John Earman, "Infinite Pains: The Trouble with Supertasks," in A. Morton and S. Stich (eds.) Benacerraf and his Critics (Cambridge, MA: Blackwells) pp.231-261. Download
"Relativity, Origins of the General Theory," pp.1356-58 inMacMillan Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. 3, John S. Rigden, ed., New York: MacMillan Reference.
"Eliminative Induction as a Method of Discovery: Einstein's Discovery of General Relativity," in J. Leplin (ed.) The Creation of Ideas in Physics: Studies for a Methodology of Theory Construction. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1995, pp.29-69. Download.
"The Force of Newtonian Cosmology: Acceleration is Relative" Philosophy of Science, 62, 1995, pp.511-22. Download.
"Mach's Principle before Einstein." in J. Barbour and H. Pfister, eds., Mach's Principle: From Newton's Bucket to Quantum Gravity: Einstein Studies, Vol. 6. Boston: Birkhäuser, 1995, pp.9-57. Reprinted with unauthorized editorial changes to the conclusion in J. T. Blackmore, R. Itagaki and S. Tanaka, Ernst Mach's Science: Its Character and Influence on Einstein and Others. Kanagawa, Japan: Tokai University Press, 2006, pp. 193-229. Please consult the original Einstein Studies edition for the authoritative text. Download.
"Did Einstein Stumble: The Debate over General Covariance," Erkenntnis, 42 , 1995, pp.223-245; volume reprinted as Reflections on Spacetime: Foundations, Philosophy, History. U. Maier and H,-J Schmidt (eds.), Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1995. Download
Contributing editor to Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol. 4: The Swiss Years: Writings, 1912-1914. Princeton Univ. Press.
"Science and Certainty," Synthese, 99, 1994, pp.3-22. Download.
"Why Geometry is not Conventional," in U. Maier and h. -J. Schmidt (eds.), Semantical Aspects of Spacetime Theories. Mannheim: B.I. Wissenschaftsverlag. pp.159-67. Download.
"The Theory of Random Propositions," Erkenntnis, 41, pp. 325-352.
With J. Earman, "Forever is a Day: Supertasks in Pitowsky and Malament-Hogarth Spacetimes," Philosophy of Science, 60, 22-42. Download.
Contributing editor to Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol. 3: The Swiss Years: Writings, 1909-1911. Princeton Univ. Press.
"The Determination of Theory by Evidence: The Case for Quantum Discontinuity 1900-1915," Synthese, 97 , 1-31. Download.
"General Covariance and the Foundations of General Relativity: Eight Decades of Dispute," Reports on Progress in Physics, 56 , pp.791-858. Download. (Download smaller 460KB version reset by Cleon Teunissen.)
"A Paradox in Newtonian Cosmology" pp.412-20 in M. Forbes , D. Hull and K. Okruhlik (eds.) PSA 1992: Proceedings of the 1992 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. Vol. 2. East Lansing, MI: Philosophy of Science Association, 1993.
Revised version "A Paradox in Newtonian Cosmology II," pp. 185-95 in Joke Meheus (ed.), Inconsistency in Science. Kluwer, 2002. Download.
Edited volume, with J. Earman and M. Janssen. The Attraction of Gravitation: New Studies in History of General Relativity .Boston: Birkhäuser .
"Einstein and Nordström: Some Lesser Known Thought Experiments in Gravitation," pp.3-29 in J. Earman, M. Janssen and J. Norton, eds., The Attraction of Gravitation: New Studies in History of General Relativity .Boston: Birkhäuser. Reprinted in P. Galison et al., eds., Science and Society: Vol. 2: The Roots of General Relativity. Routledge, 2001. Download.
With Don Howard, "Out of the Labyrinth: Einstein, Hertz and Göttingen Answer to the Hole Argument," pp. 30-62 in J. Earman, M. Janssen and J. Norton The Attraction of Gravitation: New Studies in History of General Relativity. Boston: Birkhäuser. Download.
"Seeing the Laws of Nature" Metascience, Issue 3 (new series), 1993, pp. 33-38. (Review of James R. Brown, The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments in the Natural Sciences. London: Routledge, 1991.) Download.
"The Physical Content of General Covariance," in J. Eisenstaedt and A. Kox (eds.) Studies in the History of General Relativity: Einstein Studies, Vol. III, Boston: Birkhäuser, 1992, pp. 281-315. Download.
"Introduction to the Philosophy of Space and Time, " in Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Prentice-Hall (reprinted 1999, Hackett; Greek edition, 1998), . Reprinted in J. Butterfield, M. Hogarth and G. Belot, Spacetime: The International Research Library of Philosophy, 17. Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1996, pp. 3-56. Download Part 1. Part 2. Part 3.
"Einstein, Nordström and the early Demise of Lorentz-covariant, Scalar Theories of Gravitation," Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 45 (1992), pp.17-94. Reprinted in J. Renn and M. Schemmel (eds.), The Genesis of General Relativity Vol. 3: Theories of Gravitation in the Twilight of Classical Physics: Between Mechanics, Field Theory, and Astronomy. Springer, 2007, pp.413-87. Download.
"Thought Experiments in Einstein's Work," in Thought Experiments In Science and Philosophy, eds. T. Horowitz, G. J. Massey, Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1991. Download paper. Download entire volume on philsci-archive.pitt.edu.
"Coordinates and Covariance: Einstein's View of Spacetime and the Modern View," Foundations of Physics, 19 (1989), pp. 1215-63.
"Limit Theorems for Dempster's Rule of Combination," Theory and Decision, 25 (1988), pp. 287-313.
"The Hole Argument," PSA 1988. Proceedings of the 1988 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Volume 2, pp. 56-64. Reprinted in J. Butterfield, M. Hogarth and G. Belot, Spacetime: The International Research Library of Philosophy, 17. Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1996, pp. 285-93. Reprinted in L. Sklar, ed., The Philosophy of Physics, New York: Garland Publishing, 2000, pp. 68-76. Download.
"The Logical Inconsistency of the Old Quantum Theory of Black Body Radiation," Philosophy of Science, 54 (1987), pp. 327-350. Download.
with J. Earman, "What Price Spacetime Substantivalism? The Hole Story," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 38 (1987), pp. 515-25. Download.
"Einstein, the Hole Argument and the Reality of Space," in J. Forge (ed.), Measurement, Realism and Objectivity (Reidel, 1987), pp. 153-188. Download.
"Einstein's Struggle with General Covariance," in R. Ruffini (ed.) Proceedings of the Fourth Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, (Elsevier Science Publishers B.V, 1986.), pp. 1837-48.
"The Quest for the One Way Speed of Light," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 37 (1986), pp. 118-20.
"What was Einstein's Principle of Equivalence?" Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 16 (1985), pp. 203-246; reprinted in D. Howard and J. Stachel (eds.), Einstein and the History of General Relativity: Einstein Studies Vol. I, Boston: Birkhauser, 1989, pp.5-47. Download scanned file (9.6MB). Download version reset by Cleon Teunissen (376 KB)
"How Einstein Found His Field Equations: 1912-1915," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 14 (1984), pp. 253-315. Reprinted in D. Howard and J. Stachel (eds.), Einstein and the History of General Relativity: Einstein Studies Vol. I, Boston: Birkhauser, pp101-159. Download Sections 1-4. Download Sections 5-8.
"Einstein's Struggle with General Covariance," (in Russian) Einsteinovski Sbornik, 1982-83 (Einstein Studies) (Moscow), pp. 57-84.
"Einstein's Struggle with General Covariance," Rivista di Storia della Scienza, 2 (1985), pp. 191-205. (Previous article in English)
With J. Saunders "Einstein, Light Signals and the ε-Decision" in What? Where? When? Why?: Essays in Induction, Space and Time, Explanation, ed. R. McLaughlin (Reidel, 1982 ), pp. 101-127.
"Einstein, Mach's Principle and the Origins of the General Theory of Relativity," Proceedings of the Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science, 12 (1980-1981), pp. 277-88.
Interview in J. Ferret and J. Symons, eds., Philosophy of Physics: 5+1 Questions. Automatic Press, 2010, pp. 113-119. Download. Download draft.
“Interview with John D. Norton,” The Reasoner, Vol. 4, No. 1, January 2010, pp. 2-4. http://www.thereasoner.org or download.
"Einstein's Astonishing Idea" YouTube video in Instant HPS. 2014.
1980 Review of A. Koyré, Galileo Studies (Harvester, 1978) in Proceedings of the Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science, 11 (1979-1980), pp. 18-21.
1983 Review of M. Friedman, Foundations of Space-Time Theories (Princeton Univ. Press, 1983) in Science, December 1983.
1986 Review of R. Torretti, Relativity and Geometry (Pergamon, 1983) in Foundations of Physics, October, 1986.
1986 Review of A. J. Friedman and C. C. Donley, Einstein and Myth and Muse (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985) in Metascience, 4 (1986), pp. 83-86.
1988 Review of L. Sklar, Philosophy and Spacetime Physics in Foundations of Physics, 18(1988), pp.687-89.
1989 Review of C. Ray, Evolution of Relativity (Adam Hilger, 1987) in Metascience, 7 (1989), pp. 45-47.
1990 Review of M. D. Akhundov, Conceptions of Space and Time: Sources, Evolution, Directions (MIT Press, 1986) in Isis, 81 (1990), pp. 393-94.
1990 Review of T. Glick (ed.), The Comparative Reception of Relativity (Reidel, 1989) in Metascience, 8(1990), pp.125-27.
1993 "Seeing the Laws of Nature," Metascience, 3 (1993), pp. 33-38. (Review of J. R. Brown, The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments in the Natural Sciences.)
1971-1974 B.E. (Chem. Eng.) with Honours I and University Medal, School of Chemical Engineering, University of N.S.W., Sydney, Australia.
1978-1981 Ph.D. in the School of History and Philosophy of Science, University of N.S.W. Title of Dissertation: "The Historical Foundation of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity."
1982-1983 Postdoctoral research, Einstein Project Princeton, NJ
1983-1984 Visiting Assistant Professor, Dept. of History and Philosophy of Science and Research Associate, Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
1986-1989 Assistant Professor, Dept. of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh.
1989-1997 Associate Professor with tenure, Dept. of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh.
1997-2014 Professor, Dept. of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh.
September 2000-August 2005, Chair, Dept. of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh.
September 2005 - August 2016, Director, Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh (On leave Sept.-Dec. 2005; John Earman, Interim Director.)
2014- Distinguished Professor, Dept. of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh.
Associate Editor, Philosophy of Science, January 1990-December 1994
Communicating Editor: Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 1996-
Editor. The Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy, Philosophy of Physics (Space and Time) Section. 1998-
Inventory of articled edited.
Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics
Associate Editor, 2001-2003; Acting co-editor, May-July 2001.
Co-editor (with John Earman) May 22, 2002-August, 2003.
Editorial board, Philosophy of Science, 1995-; Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 1995-2001, 2003-; International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 1996-, European Journal for Philosophy of Science, 2009-.
Co-founder 2001 and Executive Committee, philsci-archive.pitt.edu, 2001-
Referee forActa Analytica, American Philosophical Quarterly, American Journal of Physics, Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, British Journal for the History of Science, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Dialectica, EPL--"A Letters Journal Exploring the Frontiers of Physics"--European Physical Society, Erkenntnis, European Philosophy of Science, Foundations of Physics, Foundations of Physics Letters, Foundations of Science, History and Philosophy of Logic, International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Isis, Living Reviews in Relativity, Mind, Nous, Perspectives on Science, Philosophers' Imprint, Philosophical Quarterly, Philosophical Studies, Philosophy of Science, Physics Letters A, Science and Education, Science in Context, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Synthese..
Member, Governing Board of the Philosophy of Science Association. Elected February 2007- 31st December 2010.
Executive Committee, Einstein Papers Project, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. 2001-
Advisory Board, Sydney Center for the Foundations of Science, University of Sydney. Joined September, 2009
Board, Seven Pines Symposium, Stillwater, MN. October 2009 - .
Principal Organizer, Third International Conference in History and Philosophy of General Relativity (HGR3), University of Pittsburgh, June, 1991.
Co-Convener (with Don Howard), &HPS: Committee for Integrated History and Philosophy of Science; principal organizer, first conference &HPS1, October, 2007, Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh. Second conference &HPS2: University of Notre Dame, March 12-15, 2009. Third conference &HPS3: University of Indiana, Bloomington, September 23-36, 2010. Fourth conference &HPS4: University of Athens, Greece, March 15-18, 2012.
Service on numerous conference program committees including PSA 1990, PSA 2000, PSA 2006, HGR4, HGR5, HGR6, HGR7, HQ-0, HQ-1, HQ-2, &HPS3, &HPS4.
Minor appearances in BBC4 Documentary
Inside Einstein's Mind: The Enigma of Space and Time
Aired Monday, December 14, 2015.
Brief appearance in simplified PBS version,
Inside Einstein's Mind (or here).
Aired as NOVA, November 25, 2015.