|Principle or result||Evidence?|
|Heliocentric layout of the planetary system.||Explanation of the retrograde motion of the planets.
Conformity with Newtonian mechanics.
|Existence of other planets outside our solar system.||Wobble in motion of star around which planet orbits (revealed by period shift in the frequency of star's light).|
|Presence of Helium in the sun.||Spectrographs of solar light.|
|Roughly uniform distribution of matter on the largest scale.||Plotting of the density of the distribution of visible galaxies.
Isotropy of background radiation.
|Expansion of the universe.||Observation of red shift/ distance relation in visible galaxies.|
|Existence of much dark matter in galaxies.||Not enough luminous matter to keep stars in their orbits within a galaxy.|
|Phases and dates of development of human civilization. Stone, bronze, iron, ...||Archaeological evidence|
|Evolution by natural selection as the origin of species.||Analogy to artificial selection.
Transitional forms. Microevolution.
|Two factor gene theory of inheritance.||Mendel's experiments on peas.|
|DNA as the carrier of genetic information.||Observation of the nucleus in cell division. X-ray micrographs yields the DNA molecular structure.|
|Basis of chemistry in 92+ elements of the standard periodic table.||Cataloguing of all chemical change in terms of compounds of these elements. No chemical changes require changes in elements.|
|Water is H2O||Hydrogen gas burns in oxygen to produce water; water is electrolytically decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen in 2:1 ratio.|
|Uniformitarianism: geological features are brought about by gradual processes in evidence today.||Examples of present processes accumulating and yielding enormous effects; the Grand Canyon.|
|Plate tectonics||Possibility of fitting continents together puzzle style. Matching of fossils and rock types where the puzzle pieces join.|
|Germ theory of disease||Correlation of observed pathogens with illness.|
|Newton's laws of motion|
|Newton's inverse square law of gravity||Kepler's laws of planetary motion for planets and moons; Galileo's law of fall.|
|Laws of thermodynamics||Failure to devise perpetual motion machines|
|Maxwell's electrodynamics||Numerous 19th century experiments in electricity and magnetism.|
|Atomic constitution of matter.||Numerous experiments establish the same value for Avogardro's number; e.g. Einstein on Brownian motion, experiments on heat radiation|
|Special theory of relativity||Failure of 19th century ether drift experiments; recognition that the Lorentz group is the natural symmetry group of Maxwell's electrodynamics.|
|Quantum mechanics||Observed properties of heat radiation, atomic spectra, scattering.|
|Spin of electrons.||Anomalous Zeeman effect.|
|General theory of relativity||Einstein's three tests: the anomalous motion of mercury, deflection of starlight by the sun, gravitational red shifting of light from the sun and stars|
|Freud's theory of the unconscious; ego, superego and id.|
|Behaviorism; operant conditioning|
|Principle or result||Evidence?|
|Extrasensory perception; remote viewing; psychic detectives|
|Creationism, intelligent design|
|The present species came about through intervention by an intelligent agent.|
|Velikovsky: the present order of the planets arose through near misses by comets that are recorded in biblical and other historical records.||The earth ceasing to rotate on its axis for a day would have cataclysmic effects.|
|Velikovsky: terrestrial oil deposits arose from hydrocarbons captured from the tail of a passing comet.|
|A young universe, coming to be in 4004BC; historical accuracy of the biblical account of the flood.|
|Homeopathy: massively diluted agents can still have biological effects.||Avogradro's number: at homeopathic dilutions, not one molecule of the original agent remains.|