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International Responsibilities Task Force
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THE "INDEPENDENT LIBRARIES IN CUBA: A BIBLIOGRAPHY WHICH REVEALS PART OF THE COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARY "DISSIDENCE" SPONSORED BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

Felipe Meneses-Tello
[1]
Political and Social Library Science Study Circle
http://www.cebi.org.mx

Translated by Dana Lubow
L.A. Valley College Library
August 11, 2005

Also available in Spanish:
http://www.pitt.edu/~ttwiss/irtf/cuba.bibliografia.html
http://www.bnjm.cu/librinsula/2005/agosto/84/documentos/documento297.htm


México, D. F.
July 26, 2005

Updated October 26, 2005


Introduction [2]

This bibliography presents a collection of references which show the social, political, ideological, and cultural struggle being waged in response to the subversive campaign of the so-called “independent libraries” and their “librarians” in name only, mercenaries on the salary of the U.S. empire; individuals who, knowingly or unknowingly, try to put Cuba on the verge of a possible armed intervention by the U.S.; individuals who have dishonored the real work which the real Cuban librarian community laboriously carries with revolutionary commitment.

As is already public knowledge, the so called “independent librarians,” together with those who call themselves “independent journalists,”  “independent economists," “independent unions,”  “independent teachers,” etc., are one of the United States government’s operative methods to subvert the Cuban Revolution. One of the goals of the campaign inherent in those libraries has been, and is, to transmit a distorted image around the world of the reality of the Cuban state's public policies regarding reading, publishing and the diverse types of libraries that help everybody. The “independent” concept is rooted in the Helms-Burton law, signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996. It is the legal outline of encouraging and legitimizing forms of subversive action in Cuba through “independent groups.”  In this fashion, section 109 stipulates in subsection a) of that law the following:

“[…] the President is authorized to furnish assistance and provide other support for individuals and independent nongovernmental organizations to support democracy-building efforts for Cuba, including the following:
(1)    Published and informational matter, such as books, videos, and cassettes, on transitions to democracy, human rights, and market economies, to be made available to independent democratic groups in Cuba. […] the President should provide not less than $5,000,000 of the voluntary contributions of the United States […]”

Other evidence about the subject in question is found in legislative documents such as the Cuban Solidarity Act of 2001, passed by the U.S. Senate, whose very purposes are explicit: “to challenge… the Castro regime” by means of “increased, decisive support to the democratic opposition in Cuba” and through “specific measures” with the purpose “to undermine the deliberate policies of the Cuban government” and as such to generate the “political and economic change” in that country through the creation and consolidation of “independent nongovernmental organizations,” among which include “the groups committed to the political and spiritual liberation of the Cuban people.” In that law the term “independent non-governmental organization” means an organization which is designated by the Department of State to be a charity or non-profit organization which "is not an agency or instrument of the Cuban government,” and which “does not participate in the benefits of the Cuban government.”  Thus, in Section 6 of the Cuban Solidarity Act of 2001, which deals with the “availability of funds for assistance to victims of political repression in Cuba,” a wide-range of independent non-governmental organizations (NGOs) is considered. Therefore in that section all “independent” entities are included, including item no.4 the “independent libraries.”  In this way, the adjective “independent” is clearly associated with a political-subversive plan, which is aimed at destabilizing the Cuban government, and consequently, directed at destroying the Revolution. From this perspective, the “independent libraries” are a type of ideological beachhead in the framework of a low-intensity war, inasmuch as they respond to the political-ideological operations included in a political subversive project outside of the U.S. against Cuba. This allows us to emphasize the idea that “independent” in general and the “independent libraries” in particular, are mechanisms of the U. S. to harass the Caribbean island and to attack its image, sovereignty, independence, and self-determination at the expense of a universal right such as freedom of access to information.

In accordance with the above, the so-called “independent libraries” project is part of an abominable policy because it actually is just another Washington ruse to undermine the Cuban Revolution. The “dissidents” posing as librarians are people sponsored and financed by the United States, with the goal of gradually weakening the constitutional order of the Cuban state. In the literature regarding this problem, they are called counter-revolutionaries and mercenaries, since they conspire for money that they receive from the most contemptible empire that humanity has known in modern times. Because of this, far from being “independent,” they are individuals "dependent" on the dollars they take for betraying their country, an act that denies, hides, or questions the counter-revolutionary part.  As such, these individuals are not “valiant activists” in favor of freedom of access to information through books and libraries. For which they have been recognized, according to the Cuban penal code, as criminals who have participated in different anti-government operations to overthrow the current socialist government and, in this manner, favor the installation of a social, political, ideological, and economic order aligned with the interests of the United States.

It is not true that those individuals have been arrested by the government for being "independent librarians;" nor have they been jailed for their political ideas. They can’t for whatever reason be considered “prisoners of conscience” because they haven’t been persecuted for their ideas, since they haven’t done anything more then show their ambition for dollars and to be useful instruments of the United States government. They, upon acting illegally and being uncovered, have had to face the law, like any other person who acts in such a fashion anywhere. Now as is known around they world, they are paying their respective punishments. Because of this and other reasons which are explained below, the matter of the Cuban “independent librarians” hasn’t convinced the informed librarian community, which is made up of librarians from different countries, including those from the United States. The farce of the “independent libraries” movement never has had a solid base of credibility around the world, and if at times some appeared to be convinced, those bases were shaken and knocked down when Rosa Miriam Elizalde and Luis Baez published the book "The Dissidents" in 2003, which uses documented testimony to irrefutably prove how the "opposition" in Cuba is created and what its character is, including the “librarian opposition,” which emerges not from the real Cuban librarian community but from "librarians" in name.  Thus, thanks to the work of eight agents from the Cuban State Security (among them Alieda Godinez Soler) who infiltrated that “opposition” network, the world could know the story of who the people posing as "independent librarians" or "independent library directors" really are. A book in which additionally the real subversive nature of Robert Kent in Cuba is revealed, who would adopt for that purpose, the pseudonym of Robert Emmet.

As former CIA official Philip Agee asserted in May 2003, upon referring to the jailed Cubans: "They were not convicted for ideas but for their paid actions on behalf of a foreign power which has waged a 44-year war of varying degrees of intensity against this poor country." This is the truth, except for those faithful collaborators of the government with an old agenda to destabilize nations and states in order to disturb the peace of the world and to flagrantly violate international law. So that to believe, knowingly or not, in the “independent libraries” and in their Cuban “independent librarians” is to fail to recognize the origin and political development of this counter-revolutionary phenomenon; it tries to display them to the world at times as social fighters for democratic values, and at other times as victims of a regime which attacks their fundamental rights.  Two of the most recent articles cited in this bibliography, one from United States journalist Diana Barahona, and the other from Cuban Aleida Godinez Soler, divulge the true political-ideological nature of the “independent libraries” and their “librarians” and, confirm the dishonest work of Robert Kent, the principal if not the only spokesperson defending the “independent library project” in Cuba; solitary defender of his counter-revolutionary cause in some electronic forums which bring together different librarian communities. Discussion spaces where he has been questioned to the degree of asking whether he is really a “friend of Cuba” or a collaborator of the United States government. Nevertheless, the international librarian community, exasperated by Kent's repeated anti-Cuban propaganda, is more and more opting to ignore him, and on other moderated discussion lists, his messages are no longer distributed. Luckily the truth about the “librarian dissidence” in Cuba inexorably points towards its failure.  Additionally, the article by Barahona, both “Librarians as Spooks: the scheme to infiltrate Cuba through its libraries” and the Spanish translation (“La verdad sobre las denominadas bibliotecas independientes cubanas”) is available on several Internet sites, allowing us to infer that that document is having an impact around the world.

It is clear that the U.S. government is behind the subversive political campaign of the “independent libraries” in Cuba. As another proof, it’s worth mentioning that Karen Harbert, Deputy Assistant Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), stated without the least bit of embarrassment April 2003, “USAID is proud to be part of this effort. Just as we did in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, South Africa, Chile, Nicaragua and elsewhere -- we will strengthen our current efforts in support of Cuba's human rights activists, independent journalists, independent librarians, [and] independent labor unions, and bring hope and information to the Cuban people.” As can be seen, those who try to break the Cuban revolution from the belly of the empire have a long political history of interference in other countries. Another strong clue along these lines is provided by John Pateman, British librarian and leader of the Cuban Libraries Solidarity Group, who asserted May 2004, “The independent libraries” in Cuba are due to receive two million dollars from the United States government as part of a package of programs of measures agreed by President Bush”. The multi-million dollar backing awarded by the United States to continue provoking of the revolutionary government is cited in several documents included in this bibliography. One of these is the article by Wilfredo Cansion Island, titled “Millionario ayuda para la demoracia en Cuba” [Million dollar aid for democracy in Cuba], in which he cites $6 million in aid for the development of the “first congress of the Cuban ‘dissidence’,” held in Havana, this past May, 2005, which Salim Lamrani reported, "didn't have the effect and the success hoped for," which made it "a spectacular failure" for Washington and its collaborators  in Miami, New York and in several other European cities.

In April 2004, Dante Castro in his article: "Trying to press Cuba," reveals facts relating to the previous paragraph. {...} Secretary of State Colin Powel 'made a call of solidarity with the champions of democracy in Cuba' […} Powell recalled the Independent Libraries in Czechoslovakia and the Flying Universities of Poland, instruments of the Cold War now recycled in Cuba. He added that, "President Bush continues firmly committed to support the efforts of these Cubans to construct an independent civil society, and the free flow of ideas and information from the island, to it, and though it. The U.S. Commission of Assistance to a Free Cuba, over which I have the honor or presiding, will explore ways in which we can help the Cubans prepare themselves for the inevitable democratic transition and help them to pressure for its arrival.' Is this how Powell interferes in internal matters of a sovereign nation?" Similarly, the "independent libraries" are, in fact, part of the political strategy for ideological war orchestrated by the United States government. This suggests that the origin of the initiative must be questioned when its assured that the idea of creating the first "independent library" was thanks to Ramon Humberto Colas (psychologist) and his wife, Berta Mexidor (economist)  as has usually been stated. This indicates, from another angle, that Colas and Mexidor were the first to be useful to the United States government, creating the group of the "first independent libraries." Additionally, in accordance with the statements provided by which Karen Harbert and Dante Castro, that type  "library" can be defined as follow: "they are subversive-political-ideological means of interference of an imperial state created to undermine sovereign governments in different part of the world and now recycled in Cuba to deprive this country of its sovereignty and independence and, as such, to push for the restoration  of neoliberal capitalism." From this perspective it isn't innocuously about "an alternative cultural project for all Cubans”, and consequently, nor are they "places created to educate Cubans to live in democracy [...]," as Colas stated June 2005 in Miami, Florida before the People for the American Way Foundation (PFAWF) and in which Wilfredo Cancio stated in his article, "Premian a defensores de la libertad" ["Defenders of freedom"] published in the Nuevo Herald.

In accordance with our analysis, Mexidor and Colas lie when they state in their "Declaration of the Independent Libraries Project" that "we independent librarians are not people interested in profit." At this point, a question must be asked, What would they be without the money they receive from the U.S. Treasury? Would they continue with their struggle to promote intellectual freedom? Mexidor and Colas lie or err when they state in that same document, "The independent libraries don't challenge the Cuban government or its system of state libraries." To the extent that it is about a subversive campaign planned and financed by a government who has tried for more than forty years to destroy the Cuban Revolution, it is possible to infer that it is undoubtedly a challenge, a provocation. The Cuban Solidarity Act of 2001 is explicit in warning that its purpose is "to challenge the relentless, systematic repression of the Castro regime."  In this evidential sequence, Verrier Molina writes, "the creation of the so-called Independent Libraries is empowered by entities who are assigned the task of disseminating subversive propaganda" in Cuba. Continuing in its answer on April 28, 1999, with respect to the “violation of intellectual freedom in Cuba," IFLA/FAIFE recognized that the "Cuban citizens" who have formed that type of libraries" have done it to challenge their government which has supported intellectual freedom."  To be exact, the document should have said, in order to challenge their government to prove their support to the political strategy of ideological war directed by the United States government and to delimit protection to the principle of intellectual freedom, value based on the First Amendment of the U,S, Constitution. (For this last statement see: Intellectual freedom manual. Chicago: American Library Association, 2002, p. 41.)

Curiously the supporters of the “independent libraries” in the style of Robert Kent, under the aegis of the United States principle of intellectual freedom, omit or hide their political-subversive reality. For what reason? That the “independent project” is financed from the United States in order to undermine the political regime of Cuba, as Salim Larmani, and other authors, have revealed. On other occasions, their ruses weakened, those people allude to the principle of freedom of expression in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states to argue that that value is systematically violated in Cuba, but this vision of the enemies of the true work of Cuban librarians has little or nothing to do with the freedom of access to information which, paradoxically, these champions of liberty don't fight for in their own country. The facts show that the hue and cry they raise about democratic values in Cuba is similar to the democratic posturing of the U.S. government toward all oppressed people of the world. Among the real freedoms which the government of that nation practices around the world are those which would please the group, "Friends of Cuban Libraries," if they were carried out in Cuba: the freedom to kill, exterminate, and to dominate others; freedom to finance and support puppet governments who respond to the insane interests of the Empire; the freedom to train, arm and protect terrorists such as Luis Posada Carriles; the freedom to overthrow democratically constituted governments; the freedom to harass whichever country whose government differs with the all powerful nation; and all of those freedoms which justify their crimes against humanity as well as crimes against collective memory.

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cuba in the document entitled “Cuba and its defense of all Human Rights for everyone” raises the question: "Unionists, journalists and 'independent librarians,' or simply mercenaries?" he answers explicitly, the convicted mercenaries are neither 'unionists' nor 'journalists,' much less 'independent librarians,' as the enemies of the Cuban revolution have repeated over and over. The only common denominator that unites them is their ruthless ambition for money and a total lack of scruples to obtain it. They don’t even have qualms about betraying their people at the service of a foreign power which wants to economically strangle us and destroy our project of independence and sovereignty."

In such a way none of the supposed "librarians" sentenced by Cuban law have worked in any sector of the Cuban library system, that is none have had or has contact   with any working group of librarians recognized by society and the State. From this perspective, in the same document he states, “The supposed existence of ‘independent libraries’ in Cuba is a joke and an absurdity.” In effect, as is known, the valuation of the true librarian work, bibliographic and publishing in diverse areas on that Caribbean island has been and is, recognized both by national and international institutions. This recognition, as the document notes, derives from the fact that, "Few countries in the world as Cuba, have created so many public libraries with large book catalogs to be freely used by any interested person. Few countries have published so many titles, from authors from diverse regions of the world and have sold them at such low prices.” The anti-Cuba propaganda, in the style of the "Friends of Cuban Libraries" (which should be called the "Enemies of the Cuban Revolution"), has rejected and discredited the cultural context with particular ignorance and excess. Thus, the “independent libraries” upon being associated with the euphemism of “promoting the transition toward democracy and the respect of human rights” in Cuba, confirm that the fundamental objective of those political enemies is to ideologically collaborate in the overthrow of the Cuban government, whose legitimacy of this break in the democratic consent of the Cuban people.

In the perspective of that euphemism, Adela Soto's article, "Independent Libraries, Pillars of Democracy," is proof of the distortion of the relationship between libraries and democracy in Cuba. The real democratic librarian work is carried out by the more than 400 Cuban public libraries through, for example, the outreach activities that are carried out in cities and remote rural areas; outreach librarian services who go to different work and study centers, penitentiaries, mother's homes, and infant circles, including the island's non-institutional channels. The real democratic bibliographic work strengthens when the Book Fair in Cuba brings year after year, the culture of the book to the Sierra Maestra communities, among other difficult-to-reach sites. The real effort to democratize the use of the book is reflected in the "Family Library" program, which in its first edition (2002) made 100,000 sets of 25 representative titles from Cuban and universal literature to Cubans at a modest price.  The National Plan for Reading, the extensive network of popular bookstores and book point-of-sale spots in the entire Republic, and at exceptionally low prices, complementing the democratic wisdom of access to the book in Cuba, an epilog of political publishing rooted in the land of fundamental social conquests of this country's Revolution. These are some of the facts that those who defend the discredited campaign of the "independent libraries" don't hear or see. But they have to be reminded that book culture and public libraries have been, are, and will be, undoubtedly, on the front line of the concerns of the Cuban socialist state. From this another lie from Mexidor and Colas is revealed when they state their opinion in their "Declaration of the Independent Library Project", that in Cuba "the availability of books is poor, their prices inaccessible." And not only do they lie but they offend the knowledge that we librarian professionals from other countries have about that nation. To all of this comes a pertinent question, in allusion to certain favorite words that Cuban adversaries use: What "dictatorship" in the world gives literacy, education, and recreation its people as has done the Cuban government does? What "dictator" puts so much insistence in the development of culture in the area of books, bookstores, libraries, museums, etc? What "autocracy" helps to teach reading and writing and sends doctors and professors to other countries? In what dictatorship are assemblies set up to choose their representatives? Those who voice their opinion and believe that Cuba is a dictatorship know little or nothing of the history of the capitalist dictators which have existed in Latin America and others of a fascist nature in other parts of the world hide or hide it - cover it up or pretend they don't

For those who accuse and criticize Cuba in the realm of libraries and books, or reading and information, it doesn’t matter that that country possess a superiority in those areas compared to other Third-World countries, and even developed countries such as Italy. For them, to deliberately ignore the vocation, the commitment and the obligation and the revolutionary meaning of the real librarian community of that country forms part of its anti-Cuban strategy. Jonathan Silberman in his article, "The Cuban 'independent library' campaign " supported by the United States, is crumbling,” states that the capitalist newspapers, like the New York Times" have practically kept silent on such subjects.”  For this reason it is worthwhile to remember some facts, such as are found in, "Cuba and its defense "Cuba and its defense of all human rights for everyone" to silence the uproar of the enemies of the social gains of the Cuban revolution: “Without counting the libraries which operate today in practically all the schools and universities, provide free services in Cuba to almost 400 public libraries. In 2003 they published more than 2000 titles and almost 300 million copies. At the 2004 International Book Fair alone they sold 5 million copies in 34 cities of the country, with more than 1000 titles of the best of universal literature at prices incomparably lower than in any other place in the world.”  To complement this distinctive view of the state of culture in Cuba, please read the article cited in this bibliography by Eliades Acosta Matos, current director of the Jose Marti National Library, “Cuban Libraries: The Report Before The CNN”.

One way of making a distorted cartoon-like ideology of the library and the librarian is when the critics-enemies of the Cuban Revolution state from Miami, for example, that the “Independent Libraries Project” is a “generating source of information and culture within Cuba;” or when they claim with melodramatic effect, “often persecuted, the Cuban independent libraries are regularly seen as stripped of their books by the political police, and the works burned If this situation were true and "frequent," the bourgeois-yellow press which swarm around the planet would already have busied itself with the matter; it would have been fuel for the counter-revolutionary fire. But neither those media of dubious credibility nor others of impartial journalistic prestige report the “persecution of libraries and librarians” or “book burnings" in Cuba, as Robert Kent reports like a scratched record on the Mexican list, "Progressive Librarians," and others. It is strange that he never cites a trustworthy source and when it is cited is anonymous, as are the majority of the notes that are included on his misnamed “Friends of Cuban Libraries” electronic site.  Paradoxically this character, who tries to assume the role of “champion of intellectual freedom,” has frequently been silent in the face of several facts which have put freedom of expression and other related freedoms between a rock and a hard place.  Remember other evidence. Kent kept silent when in 2004 the Cuban Science Academy denounced “before national and international public opinion[…] the prohibition of reviewing, editing, or modification of the works of authors from countries with economic blockades in U.S. publications and scientific magazines,” which meant another turn of the screw of the U.S. blockade against Cuba, for which the spokesperson of that collegiate scientific organization, Dr. Ismael Clark, didn't hesitate to contrast the measure with the burning of books ordered by the fascist regimes. Additionally, Kent took no notice of the protests when (October 2001) the controversial U.S. Patriot Act gave extraordinary powers to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to turn the U.S. librarian community into a mere collaborationist resource for the intelligence apparatus of that country. Any doubt about the real distance that exists between Kent and his “struggle” for the civil liberties of the citizens vanishes when, from April 2003, the Iraqi libraries were destroyed as a consequence of the invasion headed by the armed forces of the United States against that Arab country, under the guise of combating terrorism unleashed by the attacks of September 11, 2001. What must be said is that the ideological logic of the founder of the “Friends of Cuban Libraries” betrays a dual position, anti-Castro in particular, and anti-Cuban in general, both faces under the aegis of the political campaign in favor of these librarians and libraries in name but not in fact.

The anti-Castro position of the supporters of the "independent libraries" is shown by its language and form of expression in writings like the anonymous note published by the liberal Argentine newspaper, La Nacion in February 2005. It deals with an anti-Castro and anti-Cuba document titled, "Fidel Castro and Libraries," which says, "The concern of dictatorial governments to control and limit the freedom of opinion is usually constant and frequently obsessive. Autocrats fear nothing more than the spread of the truth, which provokes real terror. What is happening in Cuba with the public libraries fully confirms the truth of these assertions."  As can be observed here, with all of the ideological anti-Castro charges and the librarian farce that this implies, to the so-called “independent libraries ” the enemies of the Cuban revolution are boldly and cleverly calling the so-called independent libraries "public libraries," and farther down in the same document they rework the expression to be "libraries administered by private institutions." Not satisfied with this way of naming the unnameable, they dress up the conceptual framework by calling them "Cuban public non-state libraries," which they contrast with the "official libraries" and by extension with the "official librarians," which are the same disparaging expressions Robert Kent uses to display his anti-Cuba paranoia.

What this person hasn’t thought about is that he, within the U.S. library system, is an “official librarian” through and through, as Diana Barahona noted referring to this person, “It seems to have escaped him that at his job for the New York Public Library he also works for the state, as do most of his colleagues.  And given his possession of a fake passport and shady activities and associations, "Agent Emmet" is undoubtedly a lot closer to the "state" than any Havana bibliotecario.” In such a  way that if he were consistent with what he defends, Kent could create an “independent library” in his country and work in the Cuban library system, thus, stop being an “official librarian” which injures so much referring to the worker born in the Cuban librarian system. In addition to these expressions one occasionally finds others which are no less fanciful, such as, ”democratic independent libraries,” “humanitarian independent libraries,” etc. The intention is clear, to win sympathizers or followers to his ideology. But with this variety of conceptualizations, the “friend,” with all the ideological-subversive meaning of his campaign, appears as an individual lacking librarian knowledge and without possibility of professional growth; as a person holding to his unalterable anti-Cuba position who rejects the concept of "colleague" for the true Cuban librarian an (professional and para-professional), since for Kent his “authentic Cuban colleagues” are those who are waiting for the dollars that they receive from the U.S. government for undermining the Revolution. Thus, in the text “Adopt a library in Cuba”, which appeared on the web site of the “Friends of Cuban Libraries”, he lies to the international librarian community, stating, “The Cuban independent libraries are similar to the public libraries in other countries in the sense that they contain books, videos and other materials covering a broad range of subjects.” How is it possible that that librarian farce is compared with public libraries of other countries? The only libraries comparable to foreign libraries are those of the Cuban library system, created and developed by the State.

How can one take seriously a person who calls himself a librarian in the morning, a "library director" in the afternoon, and an "independent journalist" the next day? How can the same “non-state public library” be attributed to a specific collection with no more than two book shelves installed in a family’s house which is the stronghold of sedition and whose collection is as unknown to the neighbors as to self-proclaimed Cuban civil society?  Some people and organizations (like the International Federation of Library Associations and more recently the Polish Library Association) occasionally have been tricked or intentionally misinformed, but  not the American Library Association (ALA), since this organization has kept a prudent distance with respect to the subversive propaganda distributed by the “Friends of Cuban Libraries,” despite the pressure that Robert Kent puts on that organization. But each year Kent is defeated; each year, as Tirsen and Silberman write, "The efforts of serious librarians and other to reveal the truth have dealt blows to this campaign." (Tirsen, Catharina; Silberman, Jonathan. “Bibliotecas independientes’: un fraude promovido por Washington") This bibliography aims to do that, deal a well-aimed blow to that campaign so the world-wide librarian community, among other professionals, will have a resource which allows them to contrast points of view and form new ideas and conclusions about the librarian [gang] sponsored from the United States.

In the framework of pressure that is done to ALA in order for that organization to declare itself in favor of the “independent libraries,” Nat Hentoff is an important person, since he, prolific columnist for the weekly The Village Voice and other periodicals (Legal Times, Washington Times, The Progressive, Editor & Publisher, Free Inquiry and Jewish World Review), has published some articles on this subject. Hentoff, with his early recognition as civil libertarian, usually chooses the word “gulag” to slander Cuba in general and Fidel Castro in particular. What strange gulag is Hentoff talking about? What gulag is visited by more than two million tourists each year? What gulag is characterized by numerous cultural exhibitions in art, music, and literature? In what gulag are frequent national and international cultural events? What gulag does education, medicine, and sports stand out? In what gulag promises life expectancy of seventy five years for its population, in spite the United States criminal blockade over the last forty five years. Besides this, which in reality this critic and absolutist defender of freedom omits or forgets in his articles, included in this bibliography, is that in the extreme east of Cuba exists a real “United States gulag”, Guantanamo. About this ominous place, the Mexican newspaper La Jornada in yesterday's  editorial dated June 6, 2005, reiterated the strong criticism made a few days ago by Amnesty International of the conditions in which the Bush administration is keeping close to 500 prisoners in the military enclave of Guantanmo." And that same editorial added. "Virtually kidnapped, without even the right to justice or defense, submitted to regular humiliations, badly treated and tortured, some of them minors, the prisoners at Guantanamo, to the world is the clearest attitude of the White House against legality, justice, the most basic humanitarian sense and human rights To the contrary, when Hentoff deals with the subject of "Castro's Gulag" he has been completely indifferent to the desecration of the holy Koran at Guantanamo by U.S. soldiers, which was widely reported in  May 2005 by Newsweek magazine, and distributed more than two years ago by the U.S. and foreign press, recalled the Washington Post .

In this matter of contradiction and incongruities, Hentoff in his article "Cuba Cages Librarians" accuses ALA and other organizations (American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression, American Society of Journalists and Authors, Barnes & Noble, New York University Press, Random House, and Simon & Schuster, and various librarian sate associations) "has said or done anything about the torment that 10 independent librarians in Cuba are undergoing in Fidel Castro's gulag, along with 65 other pro-democracy dissidents rounded up in the dictator's crackdown in April last year." So Hentoff's excessive liberal ideological posture, added to his obvious anti-Castro spirit, deprives his points of view of all seriousness, added to which he completely ignores Cuba's legal system, and as a consequence he is unable to distinguish the real reasons the "dissidents" are in prison. So Hentoff's articles are a monument to the premeditated inconsistency in analysis against the Cuban regime in order to defend individuals who, if they had committed the same acts within the jurisdiction of the U.S., would also be in prison and some of them would also likely be on death row. In this context Hentoff's writings on the subject don't stand up to rigorous analysis. In any event, the propaganda in his articles, which may be deduced from the titles, conforms to that of the "Friends of Cuban Libraries." But despite this type of attacks and manipulations of the information against Cuba and its real libraries and its genuine librarians, those "friends" don't manage to get ALA to change its goals at the 2005 annual conference held in Chicago. It has been another defeat   for the "Friends of Cuban Libraries"; a disaster for he counter-revolutionary  "dissidence" and a setback for the Hentoffesque writing style. Ramon Colas has had the same luck, since in 2004 he said that it was unfortunate that the U.S. librarians, with their organization (ALA) had continued to remain silent about the basic and universal concept of freedom to read in Cuba, a principal it claims to defend. (see Marquez, M.  “Cuban libraries in need - where's ALA?”)

Robert Kent, principal advocate of the “valiant independent librarians” who find themselves serving sentences within the Cuban prison system, ignores, for example, that the United States it the largest jailer in the world. In the last 25 years the incarcerated population in that country has grown by a factor of four, as the British magazine The Economist noted, and as Jim Cason and David Brooks noted in the Mexican daily, La Jornada (May 17, 2004). Angel Rodriguez, reflecting on "The U.S. prison system" (Adelante, January 25, 2005), says, "Close to two-and-a-half million Americans, the majority blacks, Hispanics, Arabs and poor whites, find themselves crowded in prisons which are every day more inadequate," and the number continues to grow. Along the same lines, Cason and Brooks say, "it is recognized that the U.S. prison system shows the dark side of the democratic 'model' which the Bush administration wants so much to export to every corner of the world." Is it possible that the "advocate of freedom" is unaware of this situation with regards to his "librarians" in Cuba? We don't think so; for this reason he displays a monumental hypocrisy when he tries to systematically ignore the problems in his own country and, instead, tries to learn all about the conditions which are alleged regarding the "jailing of independent librarians in Cuba," whose number and names change with every writing on the subject. In this sense, regarding Cuban lawbreakers, the true quantitative aspect doesn't matter; what matters is making an impression in the media by saying they are "librarians," in order to step up the disinformation war against Cuba.

Without further ado, here are the bibliographic references to documents that reveal the counter-revolutionary “dissidence” linked to the interventionist policy of the United States government. It’s worth finally mentioning this bibliography will attempt to keep current with the goal of offering a series of references around the issue.

Finally, the author thanks U.S. librarian Dana Lubow for the detailed and patient checking that she did on the bibliography. Her collaboration allowed it to be enriched and numerous technical details to be corrected.

******************* O ******************

ACOSTA, Eliades. “Cuban Libraries: The Report Before The CNN”. [on line]. World Libraries. Vol. 13, No. 1 & 2 (Spring and Fall 2003). Available on the Internet:
http://chrisdaydesign.com/worldlib/vol13no1-2/acosta_v13n1-2.shtml

ACOSTA, Eliades. “El Sr. Kent ataca de nuevo”. [on line]. La Jiribilla. No. 102. April 27, 2003. Available on the Internet:
http://www.lajiribilla.cu/2003/n102_04/102_27.html


ACOSTA, Eliades. “Las bibliotecas cubanas: el reportaje pendiente de la CNN”. [on line]. Rebelión. July 1, 2003. Available on the Internet:
http://www.rebelion.org/cultura/030701eacosta.htm

ACOSTA MATOS, Eliades. “Discurso pronunciado por Eliades Acosta Matos, en la reunión del IFLA, Boston, EU, el 24 de agosto”. [on line].  August 30,2001. Available on the Internet:
http://www.bnjm.cu/bnjm/espanol/noticias/2001/agosto/147_1.htm

ACOSTA MATOS, Eliades. “El lector infinito : censuras y lecturas en el tercer milenio”. [on line]. La Jiribilla. No. 14, August 11, 2001. Available on the Internet: http://www.lajiribilla.cu/2001/n14_agosto/398_14.html
 
ACOSTA MATOS, Eliades. “Las bibliotecas como campo de batalla”. [on line]. La Jiribilla. No. 109. June 18 , 2003. Available on the Internet:
http://www.lajiribilla.cu/2003/n109_06/109_18.html

ACOSTA MATOS, Eliades. “Robert Kent, el “Grupo de Amigos del Acta Patriótica”, y un fin de año inolvidable”. [on line]. La Jiribilla. No. 131. November 20, 2003. Available on the Internet: http://www.lajiribilla.cu/2003/n131_11/131_20.html

ACOSTA MATOS, Eliades. “The Truth About Robert Kent”. [on line]. Cuban Libraries Solidarity Group. June 20, 2005. Available on the  Internet:
http://www.cubanlibrariessolidaritygroup.org.uk/articles.asp?ID=89

AGEE, Philip. “La sociedad civil y los disidentes”. [on line]. La Jiribilla. No. 115. June 19, 2003. Available on the Internet:
 http://www.lajiribilla.cu/2003/n115_07/115_01.html

AGEE, Philip. “La troika norteamericana : la AID, la NED y la CIA”. [on line]. Granma Internacional. July  23,2003. Available on the Internet:
http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2003/julio/mier23/29agee.html
 
AGEE, Philip. “Terrorism and Civil Society as Instruments of U.S. Policy in Cuba”.  [on line]. Socialism and Democracy. Current Issue. No.37. Vol. 19, No. 1. Available on the Internet: http://www.sdonline.org/34/philip_agee.htm

AGEE, Philip. “Terrorismo y sociedad civil como instrumentos de la política estadounidense en Cuba”. [on line]. Traducido para Rebelión por Germán Leyens. May 2003.  Available on the Internet:
http://www.manueltalens.com/ultima_hora/46agee.htm

AGENCIA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS PARA EL DESARROLLO INTERNACINAL. “Declaraciones De Karen Harbert, Sub Administradora Adjunta de La USAID Para América Latina y El Caribe”. [on line]. USAID. April 16, 2003. Available on the Internet: http://www.usaid.gov/espanol/ty030416_sp.html

AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. “Testimony by Karen A. Harbert, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean  "Cuba". [on line]. USAID, 16 de abril de 2003. Available on the Internet: http://www.usaid.gov/press/speeches/2003/ty030416.html

“ALA to take no further action on Cuban librarians”. Library Journal. Vol. 126. no. 3. (Feb. 15, 2001): 112

“Alarcon Defends Imprisonment of 'Independent Librarians' in Cuba, Cites Washington's Funding of Anti-Castro Groups in Havana”. [on line]. Democracy Now. Wednesday, September 21st, 2005. Available on the Internet: http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=05/09/21/1423239#transcript

ALLARD, Jean-Guy.”Bibliotecarios INDEPENDIENTES”/La “conexión checa” anti-cubana del Agente Kent radica en Rhode Island”. [on line]. Librínsula : la Isla de los Libros. Year 2, No. 91.  September 30, 2005. Available on the Internet:
http://www.bnjm.cu/librinsula/2005/septiembre/91/lapuntilla/puntilla292.htm

ALLARD, Jean-Guy. “Conjuran show anticubano”. [on line]. Granma Internacional. August 19, 2005. Available on the Internet:
http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/agost/vier19/35oslo.html

ALLARD, Jean-Guy. “El principito, confiscado por las aduanas de Bush”. [on line]. Granma Internacional. August 8,  2005. Available on the Internet:
http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/Agosto/lun8/33principito-e.html

ALLARD, Jean Guy. "“INDEPENDENT” Librarians/The anti-Cuban “Czech connection” of Agent Robert Kent lies in Rhode Island. [on line]. Librínsula: a Isla de los Libros. Year 2. No. 91. September 30, 2005. Available on the Internet:  http://www.bnjm.cu/librinsula/2005/septiembre/91/lapuntilla/puntilla292.htm#en

ALLARD, Jean-Guy. “Knock-out in Oslo”. [on line]. Granma Internacional. August 18, 2005. Available on the  Internet:
http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2005/agosto/juev18/35biblio.html

ALLARD, Jean-Guy. “Organización mundial de bibliotecarios denuncia confiscación por el Gobierno de Bush de libros destinados a Cuba”.  [on line]. Granma Internacional. August 16, 2005. Available on the Internet:
http://www.granma.cu/espanol/2005/agost/mar16/34bibliotecarios.html
Publicado también bajo el título “Congreso mundial de los bibliotecarios : knock out en Oslo”. Rebelión. August 20,  2005. Available on the Internet:
http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=19141

ALLARD, Jean-Guy. “The little prince: confiscated by U. S.  customs”. [on line]. Granma International. August 9, 2005. Available on the Internet:
http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2005/agosto/mar9/33princip.html

ALVARADO GODOY, Percy Francisco. “Camajanes europeos se confabulan para atacar a Cuba”. [on line]. Cuba Socialista. October 31, 003. Available on the Internet: http://www.profesionalespcm.org/cuba/PercyCamajanesEuropeos.html

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. International Relations Committee Latin American and Caribbean Subcommittee. “Report on Cuban issue”. [on line]. ALA Home. January 15, 2001. Available on the Internet:
http://www.ala.org/ala/iro/iroactivities/alacubanlibrariesreportcuban.htm

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. Social Responsibilities Round Table. International Responsibilities Task Force. “Discussion on the "Independent" Cuban Libraries”. [on line]. ALA, SRRT, IRTF Home. March 18, 2005. Available on the Internet: http://www.pitt.edu/~ttwiss/irtf/cuba.html

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. Social Responsibilities Round Table. International Responsibilities Task Force. “Resolución de la Mesa Redonda sobre Responsabilidades Sociales (SRRT), de la American Library Association (ALA), sobre las bibliotecas cubanas”. [on line]. ALA, SRRT, IRTF Home. January 17, 2000. Available on the Internet: http://www.pitt.edu/~ttwiss/irtf/resolutions.bibcub.html

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. Social Responsibilities Round Table. International Responsibilities Task Force. “Resolution on Cuban libraries”. [on line]. ALA, SRRT, IRTF Home. January 17, 2000. Available on the Internet.
http://www.pitt.edu/~ttwiss/irtf/resolutions.cublibs.html

AMEZCUA DROMUNDO, Cuauhtémoc. (Coordinador). Los derechos humanos y la autodeterminación. El caso de Cuba. [on line]. México, Nueva Democracia, APN, y Movimiento Mexicano Juarista Bolivariano por la Soberanía y la Unidad de América Latina y el Caribe. 2003. Available on the Internet:
http://www.nuevademocracia.org.mx/libros/cuba/index.html

AMEZCUA DROMUNDO, Cuauhtémoc. “¿Disidentes o mercenarios?”. [on line]. In: Los derechos humanos y la autodeterminación. El caso de Cuba. México, Nueva Democracia. 2003. Available on the Internet:
http://www.nuevademocracia.org.mx/libros/cuba/ch_dh_08.html
  
“Appeal for Cuban librarians = Apel w obronie kubańskich bibliotekarzy = Llamamiento en defensa de los bibliotecarios cubanos”. [on line]. IFLANET, IFLA/FAIFE. December 17, 2004. Available on the Internet :
http://www.ifla.org./faife/news/cubanappeal2004.htm

ARMARIO, Christine. “Exile still pulling for independent libraries in Cuba”. [on line]. The Miami Herald. June 26, 2004. Available on the Internet:
http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/americas/cuba/2136.html

ARROYO, Víctor Rolando. “Bibliotecas independientes : convocatoria  y desafíos”. [on line]. CUBANET. January 8, 2002. Available on the Internet: http://www.cubanet.org/bibliotecas/noticias/n_b01080301.htm

ASOCIACIÓN CUBANA DE BIBLIOTECARIOS (ASCUBI). “Nota de Prensa” [Acerca de la Carta de las Asociaciones de gremio bibliotecario y de información cubano al Sr. Alex Byrne  entonces de IFLA-FAIFE]. [on line]. La Verdad de Cuba. May 12, 2003. Available on the Internet:
http://www.bnjm.cu/laverdaddecuba/index.htm

AVIVAR COBAS, Roberto. “En Cuba : revolución y contrarrevolución. A debate con los proyectos de las disidencias”. [on line]. Rebelión. July 13, 2005. Available on the Internet: http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=17690
 
BÁEZ VALDÉS, Rosa Cristina. “La Biblioteca Nacional José Martí y el Sistema Nacional de Bibliotecas Públicas en el contexto cubano actual”. [on line]. Librínsula : la Isla de los Libros. Año 1, No. 1, January 9, 2004. Available on the Internet:
 http://www.bnjm.cu/librinsula/2004/enero/01/documentos/documento2.htm

BÁEZ VALDÉZ, Rosa Cristina. “The José Martí National Library and the National Public Library System in the current Cuban context”. [on line]. Cuban Libraries Solidarity Group. January  30, 2004. Available on the Internet:
http://www.cubanlibrariessolidaritygroup.org.uk/articles/1_30_04.html
 
BARAHONA, Diana. “La verdad sobre las denominadas bibliotecas independientes cubanas”. [on line]. Rebelión. June 21,  2005. Available on the Internet:
http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=16778
Asociación Suiza-Cuba. Solidaridad con Cuba. June 22, 2005. Available on the Internet:  http://www.cuba-si.ch/index.php?lang=es&site=1&ID=115
Granma. June 20 de junio,2005. Available on the Internet.
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BARAHONA, Diana. “Librarians as Spooks : the scheme to infiltrate Cuba’s libraries”. [on line]. Counterpunch. June 18/19, 2005. Available on the Internet:
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BARAHONA, Diana. “Librarians as Spooks : The scheme to hijack the ALA in war on Cuba”. [on line]. Znet. June 20, 2005. Available on the Internet:
 http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=60&ItemID=8122

BARAHONA, Diana. “The truth about so-called independent libraries in Cuba”. [on line]. June 29, 2005. Granma International. Available on the Internet:
http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2005/junio/mier29/27bib.html

BERMAN, Ellen. “Pathfinder draws interest at librarians’ meeting”. [on line]. Cuban Libraries Solidarity group. April 21, 2005. Available on the Internet:
http://www.cubanlibrariessolidaritygroup.org.uk/articles.asp?ID=52

BERRY, John W. “The American Library Association and Cuba’s Libraries: An Overview 2001 to 2004”. [on line]. World Libraries. Vol. 13, No. 1 & 2 (Spring and Fall 2003). Available on the Internet:
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BERRY, John W. “ALA and CUBA's libraries: time a dialogue”. American Libraries. Vol. 32, no. 8. (Sep. 20001): 7

BJÖRKLUND, Eva. “¿Están Pippa medias largas y Harry Potter prohibidos en Cuba?”. [on line]. Liberación. September 12, 2003. Available on the Internet:
http://www.liberacion.press.se/anteriores/030912/notas/eva.htm

BLUME, Klaus. “Censura que muerde libros”. [on line]. Hablemos. August 3, 2003. Available on the Internet:
http://www.elsalvador.com/hablemos/030803/030803-3.htm

“Botellas bien abiertas”. [on line].  Librínsula : la Isla de los Libros. Año 2, No. 69, April 29, 2005. Available on the Internet:
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BULLIORE, Kim. “Cuba : Independent Libraries’ not so independent”. [on line]. Gramna International. August 29, 2003. Available on the Internet: http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2003/agosto03/vier29/biblioteca.html

CALVO OSPINA, Hernando; DECLERCQ, Katlijn. Disidentes o mercenarios, Objetivo: liquidar la revolución cubana. Madrid : Ediciones VOSA SL, 1998. 268 p.

CALVO OSPINA, Hernando; DECLERCQ, Katlijn. Disidentes o mercenarios. Digital book available on the Internet: http://www.lajiribilla.cu/pdf/librodisid.html

CALZON, Frank. “Castro fears the modest Cuban independent libraries”. [on line]. Cubanet. October 22, 1999. Available on the Internet: http://www..org/CNews/y99/oct99/22e9.htm
 
CANSIO, Wilfredo. “Los democrátas cubanos reciben una importante ayuda económica de EEUU”. [on line]. Diario Exterior. May 14, 2005. Available on the Internet: http://www.eldiarioexterior.com/noticia.asp?idarticulo=4959&subtema=
 
CANSIO ISLA, Wilfredo. “Al exilio fundadores de las bibliotecas independientes”. [on lne]. El Nuevo Herald. December 28, 2001. Available on the Internet:
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CANSIO ISLA, Wilfredo. “Millonaria ayuda para la democracia en Cuba”. El Nuevo Herald, May 13, 2005

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“Carta abierta a Dana Lubow = Open lettter to Dana Lubow”. [on line]. Librínsula : la Isla de los Libros. Year 2, no. 83, August 5,  Available on the Internet:
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“Carta abierta de los bibliotecarios cubanos a los bibliotecarios polacos”. [on line].  Librínsula : la Isla de los Libros. Año 2, No. 51, December 24, 2004. Available on the Internet:
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CARTER, Tom. “Library group on Cuba stance”. [on line]. The Washington Times. June 05, 2003. Available on the internet:
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CASTRO ARRASCO, Dante. “Tratando de prensar a Cuba”. [on line]. Rebelión. April 28, 2004. Available on the Internet:
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CHEPESIUK, Ronald. "Cuban Libraries: 30 years after the revolution". American Libraries. Vol.  21, no. 10 (1990): 994-997

COBAS AVIVAR, Roberto. “En Cuba : revolución y contrarrevolución. A debate con los proyectos de las disidencias”. [on line]. Rebelión. July 13, 2005. Available on the Internet: http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=17690

“Comparecencia especial de Fidel. La conspiración del gobierno norteamericano y la mafia de Miami”. [on line].  La Jiribilla. Dossier. April 23, 2003. Available on the Internet:
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CONNOR, Olga. “Informan de proyecto ‘la biblioteca de todos’ para Cuba”. [on line]. El Nuevo Herald. August 25,  2004. Available on the Internet:
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COSANO ALÉN, Reinaldo. “Celebra quinto aniversario red de bibliotecas independientes”. [on line]. Cubanet. January 28, 2005. Available on the Internet:
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“Cuba compromiso, The”. Library Journal. Vol. 129, no. 3 (Feb. 15, 2004): 18-20

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“Cuban librarians fight for freedom to read”. [on line]. Newsletter on Intellectual Freedom. 50 (5) (September 2001): 204, 222

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DAVIES, Gayle. “The independence of Cuban libraries”. [on line]. InCite. August 2005. Available on the Internet:
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EBERHART, George M. “Intellectual freedom in Cuban libraries: does it exist?”. American Libraries. 32 (4) (April 2001): 87-91

ELIZALDE, Rosa Miriam; Báez, Luis. “Los disidentes” : agentes de la Seguridad Cubana revelan la historia real." [on line].  2003. Available on the Internet:
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ELIZALDE, Rosa Miriam; Báez, Luis. “Los disidentes”. La Habana, Editora Política, 2003. 227 p.

“En efecto, Mr Kent, la familia sigue creciendo... pero del lado cubano”. [on line]. Librínsula : la Isla de los Libros. Year 2, no. 86, August 26, 2005. Available on the Internet: http://www.bnjm.cu/librinsula/2005/agosto/86/dossier/dossier165.htm

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FAZIO, Carlos. “Disidencia cubana : negocio y doble juego del Camaján”. [on line]. Rebelión. October 20, 2003. Available on the Internet.
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“Fidel Castro y las bibliotecas”. [on line]. Editorial del periódico La Nación. Argentina, February 7, 2005.  Available on the Internet:
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FRIENDS OF CUBAN LIBRARIES = LOS AMIGOS DE LAS BIBLIOTECAS CUBANAS. Friends of Cuban libraries Homepage. [on line]. 2002. Revised: 06/28/05. Available on the Internet:
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“Fundador y director de Bibliotecas Independientes de Cuba, Ramón Colás, visita Uruguay”. [on line]. Embajada de los Estados Unidos en Uruguay. April 20, 2005. Available on the Internet:
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GODÍNEZ SOLER, Aleida. “Las bibliotecas independientes, una mentira organizada”. [on line]. Trabajadores. June 21, 2005. Available on the Internet:
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GODÍNEZ SOLER, Aleida. “The Independent Libraries: an organized lie”. [on line]. Cuban Libraries Solidarity Group. Jun. 21, 2005. Available on the Internet:
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GONZALEZ, David. “A Cuban Revolution, in Reading”. New York Times. 2/22/2005, Vol. 154 Issue 53133, pB1, 2p, 1c, 1bw

GONZALEZ, David. “In Book-Starved Cuba, Little Feasts for the Hungry”. New York Times. 06/06/2001, Vol. 150 Issue 51776, pA4, 0p, 2bw

GOERING, Laurie. “Private libraries turn page in Cuba: Book lenders offer variety, draw scorn of Castro regime”. [on line]. The Chicago Tribune. February 10, 2002. Available on the Internet:
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GOTT, Richard. Cuba : a new history. New Haven : Yale University Press, 2004. p. 316

GOWLAND, Rob. “Freedom of disinformation”. [on line]. The Guardian. June 25, 2003. Available on the Internet: http://www.cpa.org.au/garchve03/1143cult.html

“Group Opposes Harassment in Cuba”. American Libraries. Vol. 30, no. 8, (Sep. 1999): 32

HAMILTON, Stuart. “Librarians or Dissidents: Critics and Supporters of the Independent Libraries in Cuba Project”.  [on line]. Progressive Librarian.    Issue number 19-20, Spring 2002. Available on the Internet:
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HENTOFF, Nat. “A U. S. librarian defends Castro : books to overthrow Castro?”. [on line]. The Village Voice. January 5, 2004. Available on the Internet:
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HENTOFF, Nat. “A U.S. Library vs. Fidel A library defies Castro and the American Library Association on Freedom to Read”. [on line]. The Village Voice. February 4, 2005. Available on the Internet:
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HENTOFF, Nat. “An American public library versus Castro”. Jewish World Review. [on line]. January 27, 2005. Available on the Internet:
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HENTOFF, Nat. “Castro defenders”. Library Journal. Section Letters. Vol. 129, no.6. (1 April, 2004): 10

HENTOFF, Nat. “Criminalizing librarians: is Victor Arroyo a ‘traitor to Cuba’?”. [on line]. The Village Voice. December 19, 2003. Available on the Internet:
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HENTOFF, Nat. “The Abandoned Librarians : Castro's Judges Burn Books 'Lacking Usefulness’”.  [on line]. The Village Voice. January 29, 2004. Available on the Internet: http://www.villagevoice.com/news/0405,hentoff,50664,6.html
 
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LLOYD, Marion. “Independent libraries in Cuba defy government’s lock on information”. Chronicle of Higher Education. Vol. 47, no. 39 (Jun 8, 2001): A40, 3p, 3c
 
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MENESES, Felipe. “Carta Abierta a mis colegas cubanos = Open letter to my Cuban librarians”.  [on line]. Círculo de Estudios sobre Bibliotecología Política y Social. 26 de julio de 2003. Available on the Internet:
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ODER, Norman. “Cuban ‘Librarians’ Gain New Support”. Library Journal. Vol. 129, no. 9 (Mayo 15, 2004): 18-19

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REGNERY, Alfred S. “Dissidents could undo Castro”. Humans Events. Vol. 58, no. 11 (March 18, 2002), p48, 1/2p, 2c

RODRIGUEZ, Arleen; BARREDO, Lázaro. El Camaján. La Habana : Editora Política, 2003.

ROSE, Michael S. “Another wave of repression : Castro’s crackdown  turns the human-rights back toward Cuba”. [on line]. Catholic World News. August 2003. Available on the Internet:
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SALAZAR, Dalia. “Las bibliotecas independientes de Cuba”. [on line]. American Press Association. 2000. Available on the Internet:
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SALINAS, María Elena. “Los libros como armas contestatarias”. [on line]. April 24, 2004. El Sentinel. Available on the Internet:
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SCHNEIDER, Karen G. “On My Mind : We Can Still Do the Right Thing on Cuba”. American Libraries. Vol. 35, no. 4 (Apr. 2004): 36-37

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TUAI, Cameron. “Cuban ‘Independent’ Librarians: A Case Study on the ALA’s Freedoms and Responsibilities to Intellectual Freedom”. [on line]. IFRT Report.  Intellectual Freedom Round Table. No. 54, Summer 2004.  Available on the  Internet:
http://www.nd.edu/~jarcher/ifrtreport/no54/5.pdf

“Un poco de información reveladora sobre Robert Kent y los autodenominados ‘Amigos de las Bibliotecas Cubanas’”  = “Some revealing information about Robert Kent and the self-styled ‘Friends of Cuban Libraries’”. Partes I, II, III y IV. [on line]. Librínsula : la Isla de los Libros. Año 2, no. 56, January 28, 2005.  Available on the Internet: http://www.bnjm.cu/librinsula/2005/enero/56/dossier/dossier108.htm

“Un premio al bulo y la falsedad”. [on line]. Librínsula : la Isla de los Libros. Año 1, no. 23, June 11, 2004.  Available on the Internet:
http://www.bnjm.cu/librinsula/2004/junio/23/dossier/dossier46.htm

“Una nueva "noticia" de Robert Kent”.  [on line]. Librínsula : la Isla de los Libros. Año2, No. 80. June 15, 2005. Available on the Internet:
http://www.bnjm.cu/librinsula/2005/julio/80/colaboraciones/colaboraciones575.htm




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[1] Professor at the College of Library Science at the School of Letters and Philosophy. National Autonomous University of Mexico
[2] The bibliographic sources concerning the topic of the "independent libraries" cited throughout the text are included in the bibliography. Please send any additional sources to the author.

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