|front |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 |9 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |21 |22 |23 |24 |25 |26 |27 |28 |29 |30 |31 |32 |33 |34 |35|36 |37 |38 |39 |review|
Adults – Nearly a quarter of the adult population continues to smoke. However, among adult pregnant females, a decline in smoking during pregnancy began after 1994. Prior to that time, pregnancy smoking rates were increasing. Approximately 12% of pregnant adults smoke during pregnancy. Women at risk have a lower education, younger in age, white race, medicaid recipient, and significant other smokes
At least 1/3 of all teens smoke. Rural adolescents and inner city females are particularly vulnerable to smoking
Since 1994, smoking rates among pregnant adolescents has increased and is greater than adults. Approximately 26% of pregnant girls up to the age of 19 smoked during pregnancy in 1999 in 48 states and Washington DC.
With regard to teens, studies like the one completed by Elickson found teens who were early smokers were 3 times more likely to use tobacco and marijuana, hard drugs, as well as sell drugs, have multiple drug problems, drop out of school, and experience early pregnancy and parenthood by grade 12. In addition, adolescents who smoked early had a greater risk for low academic achievement and behavioral problems at school, stealing and other delinquent behaviors, and use of predatory and relational violence. Early experimenters were at significantly greater risk for these problems as well, although to a lesser extent than smokers. These problems occur as early as grade 7 for smokers and early users. (Elickson, et al. Journal of adolescent Health, 2001)