||Left ventricular systolic
dysfunction is a commonly recognized cause of heart failure. Widely available techniques
can quantitate the left ventricular ejection fraction and estimate the degree of systolic
dysfunction. Although diastolic dysfunction is also a common cause of heart failure, no
consensus exists regarding optimal techniques to quantitate the degree of dysfunction or
to reliably make the diagnosis. Other causes of heart failure are less common. Therefore,
many clinical trials of heart failure have included only patients in whom heart failure
could be confirmed with documented left ventricular systolic dysfunction.