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Indications: Patients with acute myeloid or lymphoblastic leukemia may benefit from BMT. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia transplanted in first remission can now expect an approximately 50 to 60% likelihood of long-term disease-free survival. Similar probabilities are also achievable after transplantation of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remissions. Probability of relapse correlates with remission status at the time of the transplant, ranging from 20% in first remission to 60% with more advanced disease. Long-term survival for patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia who receive BMT in the phase of remission is 60 to 70%.

Pediatric BMT has expanded because of its potential for curing children with genetic diseases (eg, thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, immunodeficiencies, inborn errors of metabolism).