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In spite of these research achievements, many child health needs of children are not considered; in the literature identification of gaps in research include for example the prevention of respiratory diseases, the prevention of neonatal mortality, the accessibility of vaccines.

Among the reasons explaining these gaps in research is the lack of resources dedicated to research: more than 11% of the global burden of disease is due to respiratory and diarrhoeal diseases (are much more than that in child burden of disease), but only 0.2% of the total spending on research is allocated to these conditions.

Among the factors explaining research policies that are inadapted to the health needs of children in developing countries, firstly the inadequate use of research priorities method, the selection criteria not always being based on the evidence.

Furthermore, the fact that the potential of research to improve child health is underexplored because of the difficulties developing countries face to engage their own research initiatives which could maximise the likelihood of the implementation of reseach results.