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of live intranasal vaccine viruses which induce secretory antibody IgA (or IgG in
Bovines, temp-sensitive bovine IBR and PI3. These are genetically-selected and cannot spread down to the bronchioles, why?
Cats. Live intranasal feline herpes and caliciviruses . These are no longer listed in IVS for UK, perhaps because they have caused disease when given to kittens of less than 12w old or in kittens with FeLV, FIV. Live viruses by the subcutaneous route can also cause disease in kittens if they enter the URT inadvertently e.g. by grooming.
Poultry. Eyedrop/aerosol/water vaccines are widely used in the poultry industry in the UK. Interestingly we found that the eyedrop route was much better than the intranasal route because the conjunctiva is continuous with the duct of the lympho-acinar.
Harderian gland (HG). Virus infects the surface of the duct wall to enter a region full of many IgA-producing cells.
60% of all USA chicks are now injected in-ovo (18d ofembryonation) with live vaccines and Newcastle disease by conveyor belt to avoid handling chicks on arrival at the farms.