summary of data from all the prospective studies published to includes the initial data
from the Multiple Risk Factor Interventional Trial (MRFIT) in high-risk smokers, the
Physicians' Health Study, the NIH-funded Coronary Heart Study, the Rural Health Promotion
Project, and four recent European studies: MONICA–Augsburg, the Helsinki Heart Study,
and cohorts from Caerphilly and Great Britain. The key observation in all these studies is
that the presence of a heightened inflammatory response as determined by a high level of
CRP is consistently associated with increased risk for vascular disease in several
different population groups, both at low and at high absolute risk for these events.
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Relationship of C-reactive protein to risk of cardiovascular disease in the elderly:
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Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of
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Koenig W, Sund M, Frohlich M, Fischer HG, Lowel H, Doring A, Hutchinson WL, Pepys MB.
C-reactive protein, a sensitive marker of inflammation, predicts future risk of coronary
heart disease in initially healthy middle-aged men: results from the MONICA (Monitoring
Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Augsburg Cohort Study, 1984 to 1992.
Roivainen M, Viik?Kajander M, Palosuo T, Toivanen P, Leinonen M, Saikku P, Tenkanen L,
Manninen V, Hovi T, Manttari M. Infections, inflammation, and the risk of coronary heart
disease. Circulation 2000;101:252-257.
Mendall MA, Strachan DP, Butland BK, Ballam L, Morris J, Sweetnam PM, Elwood PC.
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Danesh J, Whincup P, Walker M, Lennon L, Thomson A, Appleby P, Gallimore JR, Pepys MB. Low
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