descirbes this process as “ a progressive loss of idealism, energy, and purpose that
occurs thorugh five stages of disillusionment. Their first stage of enthusiasm is when
workers are new to a job. Their energy levels are high and their expectaions are
unrealistic. The stage stagnation occurs when workers still doibg their jobs, but are
becoming detached from them. The third stage frustration begins when workers question
their own effectiveness and the value of the job. Apathy serves to defend against this
frustration. Interventions can occur at any stage to prevent ot treat burnout (8).