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Despite numerous scientific advancements, individuals with birth abnormalities continued to appear in sideshows and circuses.  These ranged from small, local shows to the popular and well-known Barnum and Bailey Circus.  Ancient and medieval theories remained popular at these venues.  As late at 1901, Lionel the Lion-Manís abnormalities were explained as the result of his father being killed by a lion.42  The fear of the mother, who had witnessed the event, caused Lionelís excessive hairiness. Sideshows featuring birth abnormalities were popular until very recently.