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Table: Selected causes of death contributing to the change in life expectancy in Russia, 1987-1994, by sex (in years)

(source: adapted from Vishnevsky, Naselenie Rossi, 1995, pp.72)

The Russian mortality crisis has been associated with various theories of the east-west health gap previously listed: socioeconomic transformation; environmental pollution; lack of an adequate social safety net; relative poverty and socioeconomic deprivation; historical, generational effects of a Soviet heritage; regional disparities; psychosocial stress; and individual lifestyle poor health practices and violent behavior.