||Animal studies provide the best evidence to date. In rats,
protein restrictive diets during pregnancy led to lower birth weight offspring and to
higher blood pressure and reduced insulin secretion in adulthood. Other studies of guinea
pigs and sheep also have found that under-nutrition during pregnancy altered insulin
responses in offspring. These studies provide the best evidence that maternal nutrition
can program the offspring physiologically in such a way as to influence disease
susceptibility in adulthood.