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Of great concern is the recent increase in T2D in children.  A report based on the Pima Indians in Arizona noted that between 1967-1976 and 1987-1996, the prevalence of T2D increased 6-fold in adolescents (data not shown).  Another study in the US reported that the incidence of T2D increased from 0.3 1.2 / 100,000 per year before 1992 to 2.4 / 100,000 per year in 1994.  Most T2D children diagnosed during this period were females from minority populations, with a mean age at onset at round puberty.  They were also likely to have a positive family history of the disease, particularly maternal diabetes.