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Attachment: the virus meets and then binds to a cell surface receptor, this explains
why viruses often only infect certain species or tissues eg liver compared to neurones
2) Penetration and uncoating: the virus is enveloped by an endosome and is degraded and its nucleic acid escapes into the cytoplasm, no infectious virus remains
3) Formation of
messenger RNA: Viruses have their own polymerase proteins which force the cell to make
DNA viruses make mRNA in the cell nucleus.
RNA virus make mRNA in the cytoplasm.
Retroviridae are the exception. They transcribe double-stranded DNA which is then ligated by a viral integrase into the host cell chromosome as a chain of viral genes.