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This table offers a comprehensive summary illustration of how many cardiometabolic risk factors may be affected by the ECS. In the brain, the hypothalamus receives and integrates signals regarding the status of body-fat stores from adipose tissue and other peripheral tissues. CB1-R overactivity in the hypothalamus is associated with excess adiposity. CB1-R activation in the hypothalamus also sustains overeating in obese animals. Endocannabinoids have been documented in adipose tissue, with CB1-R having been shown to be active in stimulating lipogenesis. Ongoing investigation in animals indicates that, in skeletal muscle, CB1-R stimulation reduces insulin-mediated glucose uptake. In the liver, it has been demonstrated that endocannabinoid-mediated increase in de novo lipogenesis in the liver is a critical component in diet-induced obesity. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is known that CB1-R activation by anandamide increases food intake. A surge in intestinal anandamide levels serves as a short-range hunger signal to promote feeding.

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