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The above slide summarizes the calculated percentage changes from baseline in insulin resistance at the conclusion of three 16-week, double-blind studies, using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA).
The HOMA models followed standardized mathematical calculations designed to estimate beta-cell function and insulin resistance values. For an individual patient, a decrease in values for insulin resistance and an increase in values for beta-cell function indicate a positive effect on these parameters.
HOMA IR = fasting plasma insulin (lU/mL) x fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 22.5
Compared with baseline, insulin resistance significantly decreased in the pioglitazone 30 mg, the sulfonylurea + pioglitazone 30 mg, and the metformin + pioglitazone 30 mg treatment groups by 12.5% (P=0.045), 30.1% (P<0.001), and 18.2% (P=0.039), respectively. In the placebo, the sulfonylurea + placebo, and the metformin + placebo treatment groups, insulin resistance increased 30.3% (P=0.002), 20.1% (P=0.001)  and 17.6% (P=0.100), respectively, compared with baseline.

Rosenstock J, for the Pioglitazone HCl Study Group. Diabetologia. 2000;43(suppl 1):  A192.
Matthews DR, et al. Diabetologia. 1985;28:412-419.