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Anthropometry: study of growth. Use growth charts, and body fat measurements. There are special growth charts available from the American Dietary Association that are for certain disabilities (Down syndrome, Prader-Willi, Turner, Sickle Cell, Myelomengocele, premature infants).

Biochemical Indices: measure levels of albumin, hepatic/renal function, iron/zinc status and vitamin status. Ex: Albumin is a protein in the blood, helps to maintain blood pressure. Vitamins A and E play a role in immune competence.

Clinical Indices: physical examination of child and observation of child affect.

Drug/Nutrient Interactions: look for nutrients affecting medication absorption and look for medications affecting nutrient absorption. Ex: Dilantin can affect vitamin D absorption, which can result in bone breaks and osteoporosis. Cannot be given with tube feedings, levels must be changed or will be toxic to child.

Dietary Indices: 24 hours food recall, 3-7 day food record, and food frequency questionnaires (e.g."how many times per day does the child eat fruits, vegetables, drink milk" etc.)