- Heart disease is the leading cause of diabetes-related deaths. Adults with
diabetes have heart disease death rates about 2 to 4 times as high as that
of adults without diabetes.
- Either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes increases your risk of cardiovascular
disease (CVD). Men with diabetes have a greater risk of CVD than women.
After menopause, the risk increases for women with diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with a 2 to 4-fold excess risk of coronary
heart disease (CHD). Although the degree of glycemia in diabetic patients is
strongly related to the risk of microvascular complications, the relation of
glycemia to macrovascular disease in Type 2 diabetes is less certain. The
manifestations of diabetic macrovascular disease are coronary heart disease (CHD),
cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and peripheral vascular disease (PVD).
Macrovascular disease seen in diabetic patients is similar to non-diabetic
patients, with the major difference is that it occurs at an earlier age and with
increased frequency. Additionally, diabetic patients may have atypical
presentations of coronary artery disease (e.g. congestive heart failure).
Risk Factors for Microvascular Disease:
Major co-morbidity includes, but is not limited to, any or several of the
following conditions: cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, chronic liver disease, stroke, malignancy, and etc.
- Mild microvascular disease is defined by early background retinopathy,
and/or microalbuminuria and/or mild neuropathy.
- Moderate microvascular disease is defined by pre-proliferative
retinopathy, macroalbuminuria) and/or demonstrable peripheral neuropathy
- Advanced microvascular disease is defined by severe non-proliferative
retinopathy and/or renal insufficiency (serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dl)
and/or insensate extremities or severe autonomic neuropathy (gastroparesis,
impaired sweating, orthostatic hypotension, etc.).
Major causes of death among diabetic patients:
- Ischemic heart
- Other heart
- Complications of acute
- All other