may persist after breast cancer treatment and may include vaginal
discomfort, hot flashes and alterations in bioavailable testosterone,
luteinizing hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (49). Menopausal
symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and stress urinary
incontinence are very common in breast cancer survivors and cannot be
managed with standard estrogen replacement therapy in these patients (50).
The normal life expectancy of survivors of early-stage cancers during these
years of life underscores the need to address their long-term health and