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Long-term effects refer to any side effects for which a cancer patient must compensate; also known as persistent effects (4,10), they begin during treatment and continue beyond the end of treatment. Late effects, in
contrast, appear months to years after the completion of treatment
(4,25). Some researchers classify cognitive problems, fatigue, lymphedema and peripheral neuropathy as long-term effects. Patients with late or long-term effects may have to undergo major adjustments to a lifestyle for which they are unprepared (2629).