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Additional factors:

1. Selection of high risk individuals:

a. COPD, a smoking history of 40 pack years or more; b. Patients with a curative resection of early stage NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer); c. Patients with limited stage SCLC (small cell lung cancer) who achieve complete remission after chemotherapy; d. Patients with a family history of cancer

2. Computer assisted morphologic assessment of sputum and bronchial samples.

3. Immunocytochemical technique using monoclonal antibodies directed at lung cancer antigens in sputum samples.

4. Genetic marker analyses: myc and ras oncogens, loss of tumor suppressor genes (Rb, p16, p53)

5. Fluorescence bronchoscopy for detecting early invasive cancers and in situ cancers not visible by standard techniques.