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Acute myocardial infarction

Pump failure

Large infarction

Smaller infarction with preexisting left ventricular dysfunction

Infarction extension


Infarction expansion

Mechanical complications

Acute mitral regurgitation caused by papillary muscle rupture

Ventricular septal defect

Free-wall rupture

Pericardial tamponade

Right ventricular infarction

Other conditions

End-stage cardiomyopathy


Myocardial contusion

Prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass

Septic shock with severe myocardial depression

Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction

Aortic stenosis

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

Obstruction to left ventricular filling

Mitral stenosis

Left atrial myxoma

Acute mitral regurgitation (chordal rupture)

Acute aortic insufficiency