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But the problem is not only asepsis during surgical interventions. Regarding major surgery, we can give the following example: if a woman has the pathology of Uterus, but the Cervix is spared, then usually the surgeons will not remove the latter. Such operation is considered more physiological and less damaging (it is believed that the women with Cervix experience more sexual satisfaction). At the same time we have to underline the fact that in many FSU countries surveillance over Cervical cancer is poor, so long-term outcome of this intervention becomes doubtful.

Second example is use of antibiotics. The antibiotics are not used before or during operations to prevent or to treat already existing infections. Almost everyone uses them after operation and as usual for 3-5 days or even longer. Such approach reduces effectiveness of the treatment and increases patient costs (reduced efficiency - quality health care should be provided at the lowest possible cost) and microbial resistance to antibiotics (long-term outcome not only for this patient but maybe also for the others).