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In this slide we examine the risk factors for proliferative retinopathy in two subgroups of the population, one who has nephropathy and one who does not. It has been suggested that the renal and retinal complications occur more frequently together than would be expected by chance. As can be seen in this slide, for those without nephropathy HbA1 is clearly the major risk factor and blood pressure has little role to play. However for those with nephropathy, a dramatically higher diastolic blood pressure in those who subsequently developed proliferative retinopathy, highlighting the importance of blood pressure control in kidney disease patients with diabetes.