A.  Theory of Knowledge


 1.    Problem No. 7, Analysis, vol. 16 (1955), pp. 4-5.


 2.    “On Prediction and Explanation,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, vol. 8 (1957), pp. 281-290.


 3.    “A Theory of Evidence,” Philosophy of Science, vol. 25 (1958), pp. 83-94.


 4.    “Evidence in History and in the Law,” The Journal of Philosophy, vol 56  (1959), pp. 561-578.  With Carey B. Joynt.


 5.    “The Legitimacy of Doubt,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 31 (1959), pp. 226-234.


 6.    “Presuppositions of Knowledge,” Revue Internationale de Philosophie vol. 13 (1959), pp. 418-429.


 7.    “Randomness as a Means to Fairness,  The Journal of Philosophy,  vol. 56 (1959), pp. 967-968.


 8.    “A Factual Analysis of Counterfactual Conditionals,  Philosophical Studies, vol. 11, (l960), pp. 49-54.


 9.    “The Problem of a Logical Theory of Belief Statements,” Philosophy of Science, vol. 27 (1960), pp. 88-95.  Spanish tr. as “El Problema de una Teoria Logica de los Enunciados de Creencia” in T.M. Simpson (ed.), Semantica Filosofica:  Problemas y Discussiones (Buenos Aires, 1973), pp. 401-416.


10.   “Belief-Contravening Suppositions,” The Philosophical Review, vol. 70  (1961), pp. 176-196.  Reprinted in H. Feigl, W. Sellars, and K. Lehrer (ed.’s), New Readings in Philosophical Analysis (New York, 1972), pp. 530-545, and in E. Sosa (ed.), Causation and Conditionals (Oxford, 1975), pp. 156-164.


11.   “A New Look at the Problem of Innate Ideas,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, vol. 17 (1966), pp. 205-218.


12.   “The Future as an Object of Research,” RAND Corporation Research Paper P-3593 (April, 1967).


13.   “A Methodological Problem in the Evaluation of Explanations,” Nous, vol. 2 (1968), pp. 121-129.  With Brian Skyrms.


14.   Foundationalism, Coherentism, and the Idea of Cognitive Systematization,” The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 71 (1974), pp. 695-708.


15.   “The Systematization of Knowledge,” Philosophy in Context, vol. 6 (1977), pp. 20-42.


16.   “The Systematization of Knowledge,” International Classification, vol. 4 (1977), pp. 73-75.  (Note:  This is a different paper from the preceding.)


17.   “Die Kriterien der Wahrheit” in G. Skirbekk (ed.), Wahrheitstheorien  (Frankfurt am Main:  Suhrkamp, 1977), pp. 337-390.


18.   L’analisi coerentista dei contrafattuali,” in Claudio Pizza (ed.), Leggi di natura, modalita, ipotesi:  La Logica dei ragionamento contrafattuale (Milano, 1978), pp. 114-129.


19.   “Appearance and Reality” in E. Sosa (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy of Roderick M. Chisholm (Amsterdam:  Grazer Philosophische Studien, vol. 7/8, 1980), pp. 123-144.


20.   “Conceptual Schemes” in Studies in Epistemology edited by P. A. French et. al. (Minneapolis, 1980:  University of Minnesota Press; Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. 5), pp. 323-345.


21.   “Extraterrestrial Science,” Philosophia Naturalis, vol. 21 (1984), pp. 400-424; reprinted in E. Regis (ed.), Extraterrestrials (Cambridge, University of Cambridge Press, 1985), pp. 83-116.


22.   “Truth as Ideal Coherence,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 38 (1985), pp. 795-806.  German tr. “Wahrheit als ideale Kohaerenz” in L.B. Puntel (ed.), Der Wahrheitsbegriff (Darmstadt:  Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1987), pp. 284-297.  Spanish Translation in J. A. Nicolás and M. J. Frapóli (eds.), Teorías de la verdad en el siglo XX (Madrid:  Editorial Tecnos, 1997).


23.   “How Serious a Fallacy is Inconsistency?”  Argumentation, vol. 1 (1987), pp. 303-316.


24.   “Die Kohaerenztheorie der Wahrheit,” in H. Pauer-Studer et al. (eds.), Philosophie zum Lesen (Wien: Herder, 1987), pp. 46-48.


25.   “The Limits of Cognitive Relativism,” translated into Slovak as “Hranice kognitivneko relativiznise,” Filozofia (Boratislava), vol. 48 (1993), pp. 194-209.


26.   Razon y realidadNumbres:  Revista de Filosofîa, vol. 3 (1993), pp. 61-69.


27.   “Reason and Reality,” Proto-Soziologie, vol 6 (1994), pp. 14-27.


28.   “Aspects of the Coherence Theory of Truth” in M. F. Goodman and R. A. Snyder (eds.), Contemporary Readings in Epistemology (Englewood Cliffs:  Prentice Hall, 1993).  [Reprinted from The Coherence Theory of Truth.]


29.   “Problems of Philosophical Relativism” [in Russian], Voprosi filosofi, no. 4 (1995), pp. 35-54.


30.   “Some Questions About the Nature of Fiction,” in Fiction Updated:  Theories of Fictionality and Contemporary Critical Theory, ed. by C.A. Mihailescu and W. Hamarneh (Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 1996), pp. 30-38.


31.   “I problemi di una teoria della varitá basate sul consenso” in Giulio Severino (ed.), Identitá-Coerenze-Contictizione (Genova:Il Melangolo, 1996), pp. 141-156.


32.   “The Law of Logarithmic Returns and Its Implications,” in D. Ginev and R. S. Cohen (eds.), Issues and Images in the Philosophy of Science (Dordrecht:  Kluwer, 1997), pp. 275-287.


33.   “Coping with Cognitive Limitations:  Problems of Rationality in a Complex World,” Philosophical Exchange, No. 28 for 1997-1998, pp. 33-38.


34.   “The Role of Rhetoric in Rational Argumentation,” Argumentation, vol. 12 (1998), pp. 315-23.


35.   “The Deficits of Scepticism” Revista Patagómica de Filosofía, vol. 1 (1999), pp. 5-30.


36.   “On Learned Ignorance,” Southern Journal of Philosophy vol. 37 (1999), pp. 479-93.


37.   “Trapped Within History?” Process Studies vol. 28 (1999), pp. xyz.


38.   “The Limits of Cognitive Relativism” in M. Krausz and R. Shusterman (eds.), Interpretation, Relativism, and the Metaphysics of Culture (Atlantic Highlands:  Humanities Press, 1999).


39.   “Über Zirkulantät und Regress beim rationalen Geltingsbeweis” in G. L. Lueken (ed.),  Formen der Argumentation (Leipzig:  Leipziger Universitätsverlag, 2000).


40.   “Epistemic Logic” in A Companion to Philosophical Logic (Oxford:  Blackwell, 2002).


41.   “Sosa and Epistemic Justification” in John Greko (ed.), Ernest Sosa and His Critics (Oxford:  Blackwell, 2004), pp. 145-69.


42.   “On the Ways and Vagaries of Fiction” in C. Perez and D. Greimann (eds.) Wahrheit-Sein-Struktur (Hildesheim:  G. Olms Verlag, 2000), pp. 174-97.


43.   “Methoden des Interpretieren” in Alex Buhler (ed.), Hermeneutik (Heidelberg:  Synchron, 2003), p. 177-90.


44.  “The Fallacy of Respect Neglect,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 18 (2004), pp. ???


45.   “Specificity Prioritization and the Primacy of the Particular,” Homo Sapiens und Hom Faber:  Festschrift Mittelstrass.  (Berlin: Der Gruyter, 2004), pp. 201-11.


46.   Textuality, Reality, and the Limits of Knowledge,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 59 (2005), pp.  355-77.


47.   “The Sceptic’s ‘No Certainty’ Argument,” in Michael Rahnfeld (ed.),  . . .



B.  Metaphysics


 1.    “The Identity of Indiscernibles:  A Reinterpretation,” The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 52 (1955), pp. 152-155.


 2.    “A Reinterpretation of ‘Degrees of Truth’,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 19 (1958), pp. 241-145.


 3.    “Logical Analysis in Historical Application,” Methodos, vol. 11 (1959), pp. 187-194.


 4.    “The Paradox of Buridan’s Ass:  A Fundamental Problem in the Theory of Reasoned Choice,” Bucknell Review, vol. 9 (1960), pp. 106-122.


 5.    “The Revolt Against Process,  The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 59 (1962), pp. 410-417.


 6.    “Evaluative Metaphysics” in Metaphysics and Explanation, ed. by W. H. Capitan and D. D. Merrill (Pittsburgh (University of Pittsburgh Press), 1966), pp. 62-72.


 7.    “Truth and Necessity in Temporal Perspective” in R. Gale (ed.), The Philosophy of Time:  A Collection of Essays (London:  MacMillan, 1968), pp. 183-220.


 8.    “On the Characterization of Actions” in Myles Brand (ed.), The Nature of Human Action, Scott Foresman (1970) pp. 215-220.  Reprinted in German translation in Georg Meggi (ed.), Analytische Handlungstheorie, vol. 1 (Frankfurt am Main, 1977), pp. 1-7.


 9.    “The Ontology of the Possible,” in M. Munitz (ed.), Essays in Ontology (New York, 1973), pp. 162-83.  Reprinted in M. J. Loux (ed.), The Possible and the Actual  (Ithaca, 1979), pp. 166-181.  Reprinted in Romanian translation by. C. Moise  in Krisis:  Revista de filosofie, vol. 7 (1998), pp. 128-39.


10.   “The Equivocality of Existence,” in N. Rescher (ed.), Studies in Ontology Oxford, 1978; American Philosophical Quarterly Monography No. 12), pp. 57-66.


11.   Mondi Possibili Non-Standard,” in Diego Marconi (ed.) La Formalizzatione della dialetilica (Torino, 1979), pp. 354-416).


12.   Blanshard and the Coherence Theory of Truth” in P. A. Schilpp (ed.), The Philosophy of Brand Blanshard (LaSalle, 1980), pp. 574-588.  (See also Blanshard’s reply, pp. 589-600.)


13.   McTaggart’s Logical Determinism,” Idealistic Studies, vol. 12 (1982), pp. 231-241.


14.   “The Roots of Objectivity” in D. O. Dahlstrom (ed.), Realism (Washington, D.C.:   ACPA Publications, 1984); vol. 59 of the Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, pp. 19-34.


15.   “Reality and Realism” in W. Leinfellner and W. Wuketits (eds.). The Tasks of Philosophy (Wien:  Hoelder-Pichler Tempsky Verlag, 1986; Proceedings of the 10th International Wittgenstein Symposium), pp. 75-85.


16.   “Chisholm’s Ontology of Things,” The Philosophy of Roderick M. Chisholm, ed. by Lewis E. Hahn (Chicago and LaSalle:  Open Court, 1997), pp. 187-199.


17.   “How Many Possible Worlds Are There?,Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 59 (1999), pp. 403-420


18.   “Optimalism and Axiological Metaphysics,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 53 (2000), pp. 807-835.


19.   “What if Things Were Different?”  Metaphysica, vol. 1 (2000), pp. 5-21.


20.   “Optimalism and Axiological Explanation in Metaphysics,” in Uwe Meixner (ed.),  Metaphysics in the Post-Metaphysical Age (Wien:  OBV & HPT, 2001), pp. 254-61.


21.   “Die vielen Facetten der Realität,” Information Philosophie, no. 3 (2000), pp. 7-17.


22.   “Reason and Reality” in Gerhard Preyer and George Peter (eds.), The Contextualization of Rationality (Paderborn:  Mentis, 2000), pp. 231-47.


23.   “Immediate Experience and Ontology,” Journal of Philosophical Research. Vol. 29 (2004), pp. 113-24.


24.   Nonexistents Then and Now,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 57 (2003), pp. 359-81.


25.   “Personal Experience and Realistic Ontology in Pragmatic Perspective,” in J. C. Marek and M. E. Reicher (eds.), Experience and Analysis (Wien: Obv. & Hpt., 2005), pp. 311-19.


26.   “What Sort of Idealism is Viable Today?,” Filosofski Alternative (Bulgaria), vol. ___ (2005), pp. ???


27.   “Science and Reality,” Protosociology.

“Optimalism and the Rationality of the Real,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 59 (2006), pp. 503-16.

“Textuality, Reality, and the Limits of Knowledge,” The Review of Metaphysics9, vol. 59 (2005), pp. 365-77.


C.  Philosophical Anthropology:  Philosophizing on the Human Condition


1.   “Technological Progress and Human Happines,” Philosophic Exchange (Annual published by SUNY, Brockport), vol. 2 (Summer 1979) pp. 64-79.


2.    “Luck,” Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association, vol. (1990), pp. 5-19.  Reprinted in Daniel Statman (ed.), Moral Luck (Albany:  State University of New York Press, 1993), pp. 141-166.


3.     “Luck and the Enigmas of Fate,” Philosophic Exchange:  1993-94. No’s 24-25 (1995), pp. 95-105.


4.     “Predictive Incapacity and Rational Decision,” European Review, vol. 3 (1995), pp. 325-330.


5.     “The Ways of Luck,” U.S. Air Magazine, February, 1996 issue.


6      “The Significance of Silence,” The European Review, vol. 6 (1998), pp. 91-95.


7.     “Ueber einen zentralen Unterschied zwischen Theorie und Praxis,”  Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie, vol. 47 (1999), pp. 171-182.


8.     “Die Begründung von Rationalität:  Warum die Vernunft folgen? in Stefan Gosepath (ed.), Motive, Gründe, Werte:  Theorien praktischer Rationalität (Frankfurt am Main:  Fischer Verlag, 1999), pp. 246-63.


9.     “Los enigmas del azar,” A Parte Rei, No. 5 (September, 1999).


10.   “Homo Optans:  On the Human Condition and the Burden of Choice” Idealistic Studies, vol. 29 (2000), pp. 149-53.


11.   “Amphibious Man,” European Review, vol. 10 (2002), pp. 339-44.  German translation “Der amphibische Mensch,” in IABLIS:  Jahrbuch für europaeische Prozesse, vol. 1 (2002), pp. 195-200 and also Bonner Philosophische Vorträge (Bonn, Bouvier Verlag, 2003).


D.  Philosophy of Science and Technology


 1.     “Mr. Madden on Gestalt Theory,” Philosophy of Science, vol. 20 (1953), pp. 327-328.


 2.    “Science and Public Relations,” Science, vol. 118 (1953), pp. 420-421.  with Herbert Curl.


 3.    “Some Remarks on an Analysis of the Causal Relation,” The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 51 (1953), pp. 239-241.


 4.    “Logical Analysis of Gestalt Concepts,” British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, vol. 6 (1955), pp. 89-106.  With Paul Oppenheim.


 5.    “On Explanation in History,” Mind, vol. 68 (1959), pp. 383-388.  With Carey B. Joynt.


 6.    “On the Epistemology of the Inexact Sciences,” Management Sciences, vol. 6 (1959), pp. 25-52.  With Olaf Helmer.  Reprinted in Executive Readings in Management Science, ed. by M. K. Starr; New York (Macmillan), 1965.  Also reprinted in The Nature and Scope of Social Science, ed. by I. Krimerman; New York (Appleton-Century-Crofts), 1969; and in Olaf Helmer, Looking Forward:  A Guide to Futures Research (Beverly Hills; 1983), pp. 25-48.


 7.    “A Problem in the Theory of Numerical Estimation,” Synthese, vol. 12 (1960), pp. 34-39.  An abstract of this paper appears in the Proceedings of the International Congress for Logic, Methodology and the Philosophy of Science (Stanford, 1960), pp. 86-87.


 8.    “On the Probability of Nonrecurring Events,” in Current Issues in the Philosophy of Science, ed. by H. Feigl and G. Maxwell.  New York (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston), 1961, pp. 228-244.


 9.    “The Concept of Randomness,  Theoria, vol 27 (1961), pp. 1-11.


10.   “The Problem of Uniqueness in History,” History and Theory, vol. 1 (1961), pp. 150-162.  With Carey B. Joynt.  Reprinted in Studies in the Philosophy of History, ed. by G. H. Nagel, New York (Harper’s) 1965.  Reprinted in M. Mandelbaum, et. al. (eds.), Philosophical Problems, New York (Macmillan), 1967.


11.   “On Historical Facts,” Methods, vol. 14 (1962), pp. 11-15.  With Carey B. Joynt.


12.   “The Stochastic Revolution and the Nature of Scientific Explanation,” Synthese, vol. 14 (1962), pp. 200-215.  A some-what expanded version of this paper constitutes a chapter entitled “Fundamental Problems in the Theory of Scientific Explanation” in Philosophy of Science:  The Delaware Seminar, II, ed. by B. Baumrin, New York (Interscience), 1963, pp. 41-60.


13.   “Discrete State Systems, Markov Chains and Problems in the Theory of Scientific Explanation and Prediction,  Philosophy of Science, vol. 30 (1963), pp. 325-345.


14.   “Generalization in Historical Explanation and Prediction in History,” S. Radhakrishnan Souvenir Volume, ed. by J.P. Atreya.  Moradabad, India, 1964, pp. 385-388.


15.   “Cause and Counterfactual,” Philosophy of Science, vol. 34 (1966), pp. 323-340.  With Herbert A. Simon.


16.   “Remarks on the Verification of Scientific Theories,  Demonstration, Verification, Justification, ed. by P. Devaus (Paris and Louvain, 1968), pp. 160-165.


17.   “Who’s Afraid of Big Science?,The Sciences, vol. 18 (1978), pp. 7-9.


18.   “Some Issues Regarding the Completeness of Science and the Limits of Scientific Knowledge,” in G. Radnitzky and G. Anderson (ed.) The Structure and Development of Science (Dordrecht:  Reidel, 1979), pp. 19-40.


19.   “Methodological Issue in Science and Technology Forecasting,”Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 20 (1981), pp. 101-112.  Reprinted in German translation as “Einige Fragen zur Abgeschlossenheit der Wissenschaft und Grenzen wissenchaftlicher Erkenntnis,” in G. Radnitzky and G. Anderson, Voraussetzungen und Grenzen der Wissenschaft (Tuebingen:  J.C.B. Mohr, 1981), pp. 21-46.


20.   “The Unpredictability of Future Science,” in R.S. Cohen et al. (eds.), Physics, Philosophy, and Psychoanalysis (Dordrecht, 1983), pp. 153 -168.


21.  “The Limits of Science” in Paul Weingartner and Hans Czermak (eds.), Epistemology and Philosophy of Science:  Proceedings of the 7th International Wittgenstein Symposium (Vienna, 1984), pp. 223-231.


22.   “Extraterrestrial Science” Philosophia Naturalis, vol. 21 (1984), pp. 400-424.  Also in J. Pitt (ed.), Change and Progress in Modern Science (Dordrecht, 1985), pp. 361-392.


23.   “Wie ist Naturwissenschaft moeglich?  Grundzuege eines naturalistischen Idealismus,”  Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Psychology:  Proceedings of the 9th International Wittgenstein Symposium  (Wien, 1985),  pp. 206-214.  Also in P. Hoyningen-Huene and G. Hirsch (ed’s),  Wozu Wissenschaftslphilosophie?  (Berlin, 1988),  pp. 265-280.


24.   “Natural Science as a Human Artifact,” Yearbook of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin (Berlin and New York:  De Gruyter, 1990), pp. 164-188.


25.   “Baffling Phenomena” in Daniel Dahlstrom (ed.), Nature and Scientific Method (Washington, DC:  Catholic University of America Press, 1991).


26.   Axel Wüstehube, “Wissenschaftsphilosophie:  Ein Gesprächt mit Nicholas Rescher,” Information Philosophie, Mai 1993, pp. 30-36.


27.   Nuestra ciencia en tanto que nuestra,” Daimon:  Revista de filosofia, vol. 6 (1993), pp. 1-9.


28.  “Los limites de la sciencia,” Nombres:  Revista de Filosofia (publication of the Faculty of Philosophy, Universidad de Córdoba, Argentina), vol. III, no. 3 (Sept. 1993).


29.   “Technological Escalation and the Explanation Model of Natural Science.”  (Sorites (Spain), No. 5 (1996).  (Electronically published philosophy journal.)


30.   “The Law of Logarithmic Returns and Its Implications,” in D. Ginev and R. S. Cohen (eds.), Issues and Images in the Philosophy of Science (Dordrecht:  Kluwer, 1997), pp. 275-87.


31.   “Las modalidades de la complejidad: in Contrastes, Supplemento 3 (1998), pp. 223-43.


32.   “Meaningless Numbers” in D. Anapolitanos (ed.), Philosophy and the Many Faces of Science (Lanham M.D.:  Rowman & Littlefield, 1998), pp. 158-171.  Also in Proto Sociology, vol. 12 (1998), pp. 92-112.


33.   “The Price of an Ultimate Theory,” Philosophia Naturalis, vol. 37 (2000), pp. 1-20.


34.  “Can Computers Overcome Our Limitations?” in M. Carrier et. al. (eds.) Science at the Century’s End (Pittsburgh and Konstanz:  University of Pittsburgh Press and University of Konstanz Press, 2000), pp. 110-34.


35.   “Credit for Makig a Discovery,” Episteme, vol. 1 (2005), pp. 189-200.


E.  Ethics, Value Theory


 1.   “Reasonableness in Ethics,” Philosophical Studies, vol. 5 (1954), pp. 58-62.


 2.    “An Axiom System for Deontic Logic,” Philosophical Studies, vol 9 (1958), pp. 24-30.


 3.    “Reasoned Justification of Moral Judgments,” The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 55 (1958), pp. 248-255.


 4.    “Conditional Permission in Deontic Logic,” Philosophical Studies, vol. 13 (1962), pp. 1-6.


 5.    “The Ethical Dimension of Scientific Research” in Beyond the Edge of Certainty (ed. by R. Colodny, Pittsburgh, 1965), pp. 261-276.  Re-printed in E.D. Klemke et al. (eds.) Introductory Readings in the Philosophy of Science (Buffalo, 1980) pp. 238-253.  Also in Frederick E. Morsedale (ed.), Philosophy and Science (Englewood Cliffs NJ:  Prentice Hall, 1979), pp. 315-326.


 6.    “Practical Reasoning and Values,” The Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 16 (1966), pp. 121-136.


 7.    “La Dynamique des Changements de Valeur,” Analyse et Prévision (Paris), vol. 2 (1966), pp. 649-664.


 8.    “The Study of Value Change,” The Journal of Value Inquiry, vol. 1 (1967), pp. 12-23.  Reprinted in E. Laszlo and J.B. Wilbur (eds.), Value Theory in Philosophy and Social Sciences (New York, 1970).


 9.    “Values and the Explanation of Behaviour,” The Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 17 (1967), pp. 130-136.


10.   “Semantic Foundations for Conditional Permission,” Philosophical Studies vol. 18 (1967), pp. 56-61.


11.   “Semantic Foundations for the Logic of Preference,” in N. Rescher (ed.), The Logic of Decision and Action (Pittsburgh, 1967), pp. 37-62.


12.   “What is Value Change?” in N. Rescher and K. Baier (eds.), Values and the Future (New York, 1969), pp. 68-109.


13.   “The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy,” Ethics, vol. 79 (1969), pp. 173-186.  Reprinted in:  (1)  Question (January, 1970), pp. 13-31.  Reprinted in:  (2) T.L. Beauchamp (ed.), Ethics and Public Policy (Englewood Cliffs, 1975), pp. 424-441; (3) J.M. Humber and R.F. Almeder (eds.), Biomedical Ethics and the Law, (New York, 1976), pp. 447-463; (4) S.J. Reiser et al. (eds.), Ethics in Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1977); (5) Robert Hunt and John Arras, Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine (Palo Alto, 1977); (6) T.L. Beauchamp and L. Walters (eds.), Contemporary Issues in Bioethics (Encino, 1978), pp. 378-388; (7) R. Munson (ed.), Intervention and Reflection:  Basic Issues in Biomedical Ethics (Belmont, 1979), pp. 409-418; (8) Steven E. Rhoads (ed.), Valuing Life:  Public Policy Dilemmas (Boulder, 1980); (9) Natalie Abrams and Michael D.Buckner, Medical Ethics (Cambridge, MA:  MIT Press, 1983); (10) Hisatake Kato and Nobuyulki Ieda (eds.), The Bases of Bioethics. (Tokyo:  Tokyo University Press, 1988), pp. 291-329; (11) XYZ Pence (ed.), Classic Works on Medical Ethics (New York?:  McGraw-Hill, 1997).


14.   “La Technica Delfos y los Valores,” Revista española de la opinión publica, vol. 21-22 (1970), pp. 227-241.


15.   “Response to Professors Fisher and Sosa” in The Philosophical Forum, vol. 3 (1972), pp. 363-368.  With Kurt Baier.


16.   “Social Values and Technological Change” in Edward A. Maziarz (ed.), Value and Values in Evolution (New York:  Gordon, Gordon, and Breach, 1979), pp. 163-78.


17.   “The Role of Values in Social Science Research” in Charles Frankel (ed.), Controversies and Decisions:  The Social Sciences and Public Policy (New York, 1976), pp. 31-54.


18.   “Values in Science,” Proceedings of the Fifth InternationalConference on the Unity of the Sciences:  Washington, 1976 (New York, 1977), vol. 2, pp. 1023-1030.


19.   “Moral Issues Relating to the Economics of New Knowledge in the Biomedical Sciences” in W.B. Bondeson et. al. (eds.), New Knowledge in the Biomedical Sciences (Dordrecht, Boston, and London:  D. Reidel, 1982), pp. 35-45.


20.   Rationality and Moral Obligation,” Synthese, vol. 72 (1987), pp 29-43.


21.   “II dilemma del prigioniero,” Fondamenti, vol. 9 (1987), pp. 57-61.


22.  “Leibniz, Keynes, and the Rabbis on a Problem of Distributive Justice,” The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 86 (1989), pp. 337-352.


23. “How Wide is the Gap Between Facts and Values?” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 50 (1990), Supplementary Volume (Fall 1990), pp. 297-319.


24.   “Moral Luck” in Daniel Statman (ed.), Moral Luck (Albany:  SUNY Press, 1993), pp. 141-66.


25.   “Moral Objectivity:  Against Moral Relativism” in Julian Nida-Rümelin (ed.), Rationalität, Realismus, Revision, Vol. 23 of Perspecktiven der Analytischen Philosophie (Berlin:  Walter de Gruyter, 1999), pp. 90-102.


26.   “Is Reasoning About Values Viciously Circular?,The Journal of Value Inquiry, vol. 35 (2001), pp. 5-12.


27.   “In Line of Duty:  The Complexity of Military Obligation,” in J. C. Ficarotta (ed.), The Leader Imparative:  Ethics, Integrity, and Responsibility (West Lafayett, Ind.:  Purdue University Press, 2001), pp. 243-52.


28. “Nomic Hierachies and Problems of Relativism” in Mathias Gutmann et. al. (eds.) Kultur-Handlung-Wissenschaft (Weiterwist:  Velbrück Wissenschaft, 2002), pp. 285-301.


29.   “By the Standards of their Day.”  The Monist, vol. 86 (2003), pp. 469-80.


30.  “The Import and Rationale of Value Attribution,” Mind and Society, vol. 4 (2005), pp. 115-27.



F.  Social and Political Philosophy


 1.    “Notes on Preference, Utility, and Cost,” Synthese, vol. 16 (1966), pp. 332-343.


 2.    “Problems of Distributive Justice” in W. Sellars and J. Hospers (eds.), Readings in Ethical Theory, 2nd ed. (New York, 1970), pp. 596-614.


 3.    “Welfare:  Some Philosophical Issues,” Values and Valuation, ed. by J. W. Davis (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1972), pp. 221-232.


 4.    “Some Observations on Social Consensus Methodology,” Theory and Decision, vol. 3 (1972), pp. 175-179.


 5.    “The Environmental Crisis and the Quality of Life” in Philosophy and Environmental Crisis, ed. by W. T. Blackstone (Athens, Ga, 1973), pp. 90-104.


 6.    “Value-Consideration in Public Policy Issues of the Year 2000” in J. R. Bright and M.E.F. Schoeman (eds.), A Guide to Practical Technological Forecasting (Englewood Cliffs, 1973), pp. 540-549.


 7.    “Morality in Government and Politics,” Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, vol. 48 (1974), pp. 259-265.


 8.    “Ethical Issues Regarding the Delivery of Health Care Services,” Connecticut Medicine, vol. 41 (1977), pp. 501-506.


9.     “Technological Progress and Human Happiness,” Philosophic Exchange, vol. 2 (1978; summer issue), pp. 65-79.


10.   “Economics vs. Moral Philosophy,” Theory and Decision, vol 10 (1979), pp. 169-179.


11.   “Social Values and Technological Change:  A Case Study -- Social Welfare and Personal Happiness,” in E.A. Maziarz (ed.) Value and Values in Evolution (New York and London, 1979), pp. 163-178.


12.   “The Social Value of a Life,” in M. Bradie and K. Sayre (eds.) Reason and Decision (Bowling Green, 1982:  Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy, vol. III), pp. 111-122.


13.   “On the Rationale of Governmental Regulation” in T.R. Machan and M.B. Johnson (eds.), Rights and Regulation (Cambridge MA:  Ballinger, 1983), pp. 249-258.


14.   “The Canons of Distributive Justice” in J.P. Sterba (ed.), Morality in Practice (Belmont: Wadsworth, 1983), pp. 33-40.


15.   “Whose Life Should We Save When Technology is Scarce?”  Los Angeles Times, Monday, March 10, 1986, Pt. II, p. 5 (“Op-ed” page).


16.   “Playing God:  Whose Lives to Save with Modern Technology?”  The Evening Sun (Baltimore), Thursday, June 26, l986, page A21 (“Op-ed” page).


17.   “Moral Obligation and the Refugee” in John Earman et. al. (eds.), Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External Worlds (Pittsburgh and Konstanz:  University of Pittsburgh Press and Universitätsverlag Konstanz, 1994), pp. 615-23.


18.  “Is Consensus Required for a Rational Social Order?” in Axel Wüstehube (ed.), Pragmatische Rationalitätstheorien (Würzburg:  Königshausen & Neumann, 1995), pp. 113-124.


19.  (German translation of) “Why Preserve Endangered Species?” [from Unpopular Essays] in Dieter Birnbacher (ed.), Ökophilosophie (Ditzingen:  Reclam, 1995), pp. 178-201.


20.   “The Bell Curve Revisited,” Public Affairs Quarterly, vol. 9 (1995), pp. 321-30.


21.   “Progress and the Future,” in Arnold Burgen et al. (eds.), the Idea of Progress (Berlin:  de Gruyter, 1997), pp. 103-19.


22.   “Technology, Complexity, and Social Decision,” in Sirkku Hellsten et. al. (eds.), Taking the Liberal Challenge Seriously (Aldershot UK:  Ashgate, 1997), pp. 205-18.


23.   “Collective Responsibility,” Journal of Social Philosophy, vol. 29 (1998), pp. 46-58.


24.   “Risking Democracy,” Public Affairs Quarterly, vol. 12 (1999), pp. 297-308.



G.  Process Philosophy


1.     “The Revolt Against Process,  The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 59 (1962), pp. 410-417.


2.     “The Promise of Process Philosophy” in R. W. Burch and H. J. Saatkamp, Jr. (eds.), Frontiers in American Philosophy (College Station, TX:  Texas A & M University Press, 1992.  Reprinted in Process Studies, vol. 25 (1996), pp. 55-71; also in George W. Shields (ed.), Process and Analysis (Albany:  SUNY Press, 2003), pp. 49-66; also in C. Boundas (ed.), The  Edinburgh Campanion to Twentieth Century Philosophy.


3.     Chrisholm’s Ontology of Things,” The Philosophy of Roderick M. Chrisholm, ed. by Lewis E. Hahn (Chicago and LaSalle:  Open Court, 1997), pp. 187-199.


4.     “On Situating Process Philosophy,” Process Studies, vol. 28 (1999), pp. 37-42.


5.     “Trapped Within History?:  A Process Philosophical Refutation of Historicist Relativsim,” Process Studies, vol. 29 (2000), pp. 66-76.


6.     “Process Philosophy,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://plato.stanford.edu/).


7.  “Process Philosophy and Monadological Metaphysics” in Sigmund Bonk (ed.), Monadisches Denken (Würzburg:  Königshausen & Neumann 2003), pp. 9-17.


8.     “Causal Necessitation and Free Will,“ Process Studies, vol. 35 (2006), pp. ???


H.  Pragmatism



 1.    “Pragmatic Justification:  A Cautionary Tale,” Philosophy, vol. 39 (1964), pp. 346-348.



 2.    “Scientific Truth and the Arbitrament of Praxis,” Nous, vol. 15 (1980), pp. 59-74.


 3.  “The Epistemology of Pragmatic Beliefs:  Some Observations on the Rationale of Pascal’s Wager,” Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, vol. 58 (1984), pp. 173-187.


 4.    “Counterfactuals in Pragmatic Perspective,”  The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 50 (1996), pp. 35-61.


 5.   “Perspectives on Pragmatism” in Kenneth R. Westphal (ed.), Pragmatism, Reason, and Norms:  A Realistic Assessment (New York:  Fordham University Press, 1998), pp. 1-13.


 6.  “Pragmatism in Crisis” in P. Weingartner et. al. (eds.), The Role of Pragmatics in Contemporary Philosophy (Vienna:  Hölder-Publer-Tempsby, 1998).


 7.    “Functionalistic Pragmatism,” The Philosophical Forum, vol. 32 (2001). Pp. 191-205.


 8.   “Knowledge of the Truth in Pragmatic Perspective,” in J. Conant and Ursula Zegler (eds.), Hilary Putnam:  Pragmatism and Realism (New York and London:  Routledge, 2002), pp. 66-79.


 9.    “Pragmatism and Practical Rationality,” Contemporary Pregmatism, vol. 1 (2004), pp. 43-60.


10.  “Personal Experience and Realistic Ontology in Pragmatic Perspective” in  M. E. Reicher and J. C. Merek (eds.)  Experience and Analysis:  Proceedings of the 27th International Wittgensteain Symposium (Vienna: Oebrepht, 2005), pp. 21-29.


11.   “Pragmatic Idealism and Metaphysical Realism” in J. R. Shook and Joseph Margolis (eds.), A Companion to Pragmatism (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 387-97.


12.   “Pragmatism at the Crossroads,” Transaction of the C. S. Peirce Society, vol. 41 (2005), pp. 355-66.


13.   “Reply to Participants in the Symposium on Nicholas Rescher’s Pregmatism,” Contemporary Pragmatics, vol. 2 (2005), pp. 49-61.


I.  Idealism


 1.    “Lawfulness as Mind-Dependent,” in Nicholas Rescher (ed.)  Essays in Honor of Carl G. Hempel (Dordrecht, 1969), pp. 178-197.


 2.    “Conceptual Idealism,” Idealistic Studies, vol. 2 (1972), pp. 191-207.


 3.    MacTaggart’s Logical Determinism,” Idealistic Studies, vol. 12 (1982), pp. 231-241.


 4.    “Conceptual Idealism Revisited,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 44 (1991), pp. 495-523.


 5.    “What Sort of Idealism is Viable Today?” Idealistic Studies, vol. 27 (1998), pp. 239-50.  Reprinted in Bulgarian translation in Philosophical Alternatives (Sofia), vol. 14 (2005), No. 2, pp. 5-17.


 6.    “Metaphysical Realism” in Richard Gale (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Metaphysics (Oxford:  Blackwell, 2002), pp. 242-62.


 7.    “Pragmatic Idealism and Metaphysical Realism” in Joseph Margolis Festchift.


 8.    “Anglo-American Neo-Idealism,” The Edinburgh Companion to Twentieth Century Philosophy, ed. by C. Boundas.


9.     “The Revolt Against Absolutes in Twentieth Century American Philsoophy” Idealistic Studies, vol. 74 (2004), pp. 215-223.


J.  Metaphilosophy


  1.   “Translation as a Tool of Philosophical Analysis,  The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 53 (1955), pp. 219-224.


 2.    “Discourse on a Method,” Methodos, vol. 11 (1959), pp. 8l-89.


 3.    “Aporetic Method in Philosophy,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 41 (1987), pp. 283-297.


 4.    “On First Principles and Their Legitimation,  Allegemeine Zeitschrift für Philosophie, vol. 2 (1976), pp. 1-16.


 5.    “Philosophical Disagreement,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 32 (1978), pp. 217-251.


 6.    “Is Philosophy a Guide to Life?:  On the Problematic Nature of ‘Applied Philosophy’,” in M. Bradie et al. (eds.), The Applied Turn in Contemporary Philosophy (Bowling Green, 1983; vol. V of Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy), pp. 1-15.


 7.    “Are Synoptic Questions Illegitimate?”  Erkenntnis, vol. 22 (1985), pp. 359-364 (Hempel Festschrift).


 8.    Metaphilosophical Coherentism,” Idealistic Studies, vol. 27 (1997), pp. 131-41.


 9.    “The Interpretation of Philosophical Texts,” Proceeding of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, vol. 72 (1999), pp. 117-29.


10.   Editorials (4 per annum) in the American Philosophical Quarterly, 1983-1993.


11.   “Philosophical Methodology” in Bo Mou (ed.) Two Roads to Wisdom:  Chinese and Analytical Philosophical Traditions (Chicago:  Carus Publishing Company, 2002), pp. 3-25.


12.   “The Mission of Philosophy” in Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophical Entrees:  Classic and Contemporary Readings (New York:  McGraw-Hill, 2001).


13.   “Principia Philosophiae,”  Deutsche Zeitschrift fuer Philosophie, vol. 50 (2002), pp. 191-202.


14.   “Referential Analysis in Philosophy,” American Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 40 (2003), pp. 169-74.


15.   “Philosophical Principles,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 58 (2004), pp. ???

16.  “Ueber philosophische Systematisering: Plausibiltaet und Hegel’s Vision,” Deutsche Zeitschrift Fuer Philosophy, vol. 53 (2005), pp. 179-202.


17.   “Philosophical Systematication: Plausibiliity and the Hegeian Vision,“ The Southern Journal of Philosophy, vol. 43 (2005), pp. 415-42.  Also published in a German version: “Philosophische Systematisierung,” Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie, vol. 53 (2005), pp. 179-202.


K.  Philosophy of Religion

(See also K3 and M6 and Pascal’s Wager).


1.     “The Ontological Proof Revisited,” Australiasian Journal of Philosophy, vol. 37 (1959), pp. 138-148.


2.     “On Faith and Belief” in the author’s Human Interests (Stanford:  Stanford University Press, 1990).


3.     “In Matters of Religion” in Kelly Clark (ed.), Philosophers Who Believe (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993) pp. 127-136.   Reprinted in the Sheld and Ward Catholic Philosophy Anthology.


4.     “Process Theology” in the author's Process Metaphysics (Albany, NY:  SUNY Press, 1996).


5.     “Thomism and the Future of Catholic Philosophy,” New Blackfriars, vol. 80 (1999), pp. 194-202.


6.     “God’s Place in Philosophy,” Philosophy and Theology, vol. 12 (2000), pp. 95-105.


7.     “The Catholic Philosopher Today” Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophy Association.


8.    Omniscience and our Understanding of God’s Knowledge.”  Publication arrangements not yet completed.]


9.    St. Thomas Today.”  Publication arrangements not yet completed.]



L.  The Philosophy of Leibniz


1.   “Contingence in the Philosophy of Leibniz,” The Philosophical Review, vol. 61 (1952), pp. 26-39.  Reprinted in R.S. Woolhouse (ed.), G.W. Leibniz:  Critical Assessments, Vol. I (London & New York:  Routledge, 1994), pp. 174-86.


 2.    “Leibniz’s Interpretation of His Logical Calculi,” The Journal of Symbolic Logic, vol. 18 (1954), pp. 1-13.  German translation in XYZ (ed.), Leibniz’ Logik und Metaphysik (Darmstadt:  Wissenschafftiche Buchgesellschaft, 199?), pp. 175-192.


 3.    “Monads and Matter:  A Note on Leibniz’s Metaphysics,  The Modern Schoolman, vol 33 (1955), pp. 172-175.  Reprinted in R.S. Woolhouse (ed.), G.W. Leibniz:  Critical Assessments, Vol. IV (London & New York:  Routledge, 1994), pp. 168-72.


 4.    “Leibniz and the Quakers” Bulletin of Friends Historical Association, vol. 44 (1955), pp. 100-107.


 5.    “Leibniz’ Conception of Quantity, Number, and Infinity,  The Philosophical Review, vol. 64 (1955), pp. 108-114.


 6.    “Logische Schwierigkeiten der Leibnizschen Metaphysik,” Akten des Internationalen Leibniz Kongresses, Hannover, 1966, vol. 1, Metaphysik Monadenlehre (Weisbaden, 1968), pp. 253-265. Reprinted as “Logical Difficulties in Leibniz’s Metaphysics” in The Philosophy of Leibniz and the Modern World, ed. by I. Leclerc (Nashville, 1973), pp. 176-188.  Also in R.S. Woolhouse (ed.), G.W. Leibniz:  Critical Assessments, Vol. II (London & New York:  Routledge, 1994), pp. 176-86.


 7.   “Leibniz and the Evaluation of Possible Worlds,” in N. Rescher, Studies in Modality (Oxford:  Basil Blackwell, 1974; American  Philosophical Quarterly Monograph No. 8), pp. 57-69.


 8.    “Leibniz und die Volkommenheit der Welten,” in:  Müller, K., Schepers, H, Totok, W (eds.).  Akten des II. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses.  Hannover, 19-22 Juli 1972.  Vol. III (Wiesbaden 1975), pp. 1-14.  (Studia Leibnitiana Supplementa Vol. XIV).


 9.    “The Contributions of Leibniz’s Paris Period to the Development of His Philosophy,” Leibniz a Paris (1672-1676), vol. II, La Philosophie de Leibniz (Wiesbaden, 1978), pp. 43-53.  (Studia Leibnitiana:  Supplementa, Vol. XVIII.)


10.   “Leibniz and the Plurality of Space-Time Frameworks,” Rice University Studies, vol. 63 (1977), pp. 97-106.


11. “The Epistemology of Inductive Reasoning in Leibniz,” Theoria Cum Praxi:  Akten des III, Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses, vol. III (Wiesbaden, 1980), pp. 94-100.  Studia Leibnitiana:  Supplementa, vol. XXI.


12.  “Leibniz on Intermonadic Relations,” Truth, Knowledge and Reality ed. by G.H.R. Parkinson (Wiesbaden, 1981:  Studia Leibnitiana, Sonderheft 9), pp. 1-19.


13.   “Leibniz and the Concept of a System,” Studia Leibnitiana, vol. 13 (1981), pp. 114-122.


14.   “Leibniz, Keynes, and the Rabbis on a Problem of Distributive Justice,” The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 86 (1989), pp. 337-52.


15.   “Leibniz Finds a Niche,” Studia Leibnitiana vol. 24 (1992), pp. 25-48.


16.  “Leibniz und die Rationalität von Zwecken:  Theoria cum Praxi,”  Leibniz und Europa, (Sechster Internationaler Leibniz Kongress:  Vorträge II/2 [Hannover:  G. W. Leibniz Gesellschaft, 1995], pp. 242-247.


17.   “Leibniz and Possible Worlds,” Studia Leibnitiana, vol. 28 (1996), pp. 129-162.


18.   “Leibniz Visits Vienna:  1712-14,” Studia Leibnitiana, vol. 31 (1999), pp. 133-59.


19.   Contingentia Mundi:  Leibniz on the World’s Contingency,” Studia Leibnitiana, vol. 33 (2001), pp. 145-62.


20.   “Leibniz on God’s Free Will and the World’s Contingency,” Studia Leibnitiana, vol. 34 (2002), 208-20.


21.   “Leibniz’s Quantitative Epistemology,” Studia Leibnatiana, vol. 36 (2004), pp.  210-31.



M.  The Philosophy of Kant


 1.    Noumenal Causality in the Philosophy of Kant,” Proceedings of the Third International Kant Congress (Dordrecht, 1972), pp. 462-470.  Reprinted in L.W. Beck (ed.), Kant’s Theory of Knowledge (Dordrecht, 1974), pp. 175-183.


 2.    “On the Status of ‘Things in Themselves’ in Kant,” Gerhard Funke (ed.), Akten des 5. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses:  Mainz, 1981 (Bonn:  Bouvier Verlag, 1981), pp. 437-447.  Reprinted in Revue Internationale de Philosophie, vol. 35 (1981), pp. 346-357; also in Synthese, vol. 47 (1981), pp. 289-299.


 3.    “Kant on the Epistemology of Scientific Questions” in J. Kopper and W. Marx (eds.), 200 Jahre Kritik der reinen Vernuft (Hildesheim, 1981), pp. 313-334.


 4.    “Kant und das Cartesische Cogito,” Proceedings of the Sixth International Kant Congress, Vol I - Invited Papers (Washington, D.C.:  University Press of America, 1991).


 5.    “On the Unity of Kant’s Categorical Imperative,” Acts of the Seventh International Kant Congress, Mainz 1990 (Bonn:  Bouvier Verlag, 1991), pp. 375-395.


 6.    “Kant’s Cognitive Anthropocentrism” in Essays in the History of Philosophy (Aldershot UK:  Avebury, 1995), pp. 263-275.


 7.    “Kant on the Limits and Prosepcts of Philosophy:  Kant, Pragmatism, and the Metaphysics of Virtual Reality,” Kantstudien, vol. 91 (2000), pp 283-328.


 8.    “On the Rationale of Kant’s Categorical Imperative,” Philosophical Analysis and History of Philosophy, vol. 3 (2000), pp. 185-208.


N.  The Philosophy of Peirce


 1.    “Peirce and the Economy of Research,” Philosophy of Science, vol. 43 (1976), pp. 71-98.


 2.    “Peirce on Scientific Progress,” Proceedings of the 1976 International Peirce Conference (The Hague:  Mouton, 1978), pp. xyz.


 3.    “Peirce on the Validation of Science” in Kenneth Ketner (ed.) Peirce and Contemporary Thought (New York:  Fordham University Press, 1995), pp. 103-112.


 4.    “Peirce, Popper, and the Methodological Turn” in D. G. Lakhuti, V. N. Sadowski, and V. K., Funer (eds.) Evolutionary Epistemology and the Social Sciences (Moscow:  Editiorial URSS, 2000), pp. 210-221.


O.  History of Philosophy—Greek Philosophy


1.    “Cosmic Evolution in Anaximander,” Studium Generale, vol. 12 (1958), pp. 718-731.


2.    “Aristotle’s Theory of Modal Syllogisms and its Interpretation” in The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy, ed. by M. Bunge (London,.and New York, 1964), pp. 152-177.


 3.   “A Version of the ‘Master Argument’ of Diodorus,” The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 63 (1966), pp. 438-445.


 4.   “A New Approach to Aristotle’s Apodeictic Syllogisms,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 24 (1971), pp. 678-689.  With Zane Parks.


 5.    “Thought Experiments in Pre-Socratic Philosophy,” in Tamara Horowitz and Gerald J. Massey (eds.), Thought Experiments Science and Philosophy (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1991), pp. 31-41.


 6.      “La deuda del escepticismo griego con los Sofistas,” Revista latinamericano de filosofía, vol. 19 (1993), pp. 33-57.



P. History of Philosophy—Arabic Philosophy


<>  1.    “Three Commentaries of Averroes’,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 12 (1958), pp. 440-448.


 2.    “A Ninth-Century Arabic Logician on:  Is Existence a Predicate?”  The Journal of the History of Ideas, col. 21 (1960), pp. 428-430.


 3.    “The Logic-Chapter of Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khwarizmi’s Encyclopedia ‘Keys to the Sciences’ (ca. 980 A.D.),” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 44 (1962), pp. 62-74.


 4.    “Some Technical Terms of Arabic Logic,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 82 (1962), pp. 203-204.


 5.    “Al-Farabi on Logical Tradition,” The Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 24 (1963), pp. 127-132.


 6.    “Al-Kindi’s Sketch of Aristotle’s Organon,” The New Scholasticism, vol. 37 (1963), pp. 44-58.


 7.    “Avicenna on the Logic of ‘Conditional’ Propositions,” Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, vol. 4 (1963), pp. 48-58.


 8.    “On the Provenance of the Logica Alpharabii,” The New Scholasticism, vol. 37 (1963), pp. 498-500.


 9.    “A Tenth-Century Arab-Christian Apologia for Logic,” Islamic Studies (Journal of the Central Institute of Islamic Research, Darachi, Pakistan), vol. 2 (1963), pp. 1-16.


10.   “Averroes’ Quaesitum on the Absolute (Assertoric) Proposition,”Journal of the History of Philosophy, vol. 1 (1963), pp. 80-93.


11.   “New Light from Arabic Sources on Galen and the Fourth Figure of the Syllogism,” Journal of the History of Philosophy, vol. 3 (1963), pp. 27-41.



12.   “Yahya ibn Adi’s Treatise ‘On the Four Scientific Questions Regarding the Art of Logic’,” Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 25 (1964), pp. 572-578.  With Fadlou Shehadi.


13.   “Al-Kindi’s Epistle on the Concentric Structure of the Universe,” Isis, vol. 56 (1965), pp. 190-195.  With Haig Khatchadourian.


14.   “Nicholas of Cusa on the Koran,” The Muslim World, vol. 55 (1965), pp. 195-202.


15.   “Al-Kindi’s Treatise on the Distinctiveness of the Celestial Sphere,”Islamic Studies (Journal of the Central Institute of Islamic Research, Karachi, Pakistan), vol. 4 (1965), pp. 45-54.  With Haig Khatchadourian.


16.   “Al-Kindi’s Epistle on the Finitude of the Universe,” Isis, vol. 57, (1966), pp. 426-433.  With Haig Khatchadourian.


17.   “The Impact of Arabic Philosophy on the West,” The Islamic Quarterly, vol. 10 (1966), pp. 3-11.


18.   “Avicenna on the Logic of Questions,” Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 49 (1967), pp. 1-6.


19.   “The Arabic Theory of Temporal Modal Syllogistic” in Essays in Islamic Philosophy and Science, ed. by George F. Hourani (Albany, 1975), pp. 189-221.


Q.   History of Philosophy—Other


 1.   “Charles Darwin and his Origin of Species:  A Centenary Appraisal,  Introduction to the Darwin Centennial Exhibition Catalog issue by Lehigh University, November 1959.


 2.    “Choice Without Preference:  A Study of the Logic and of the History of the Problem of ‘Buridan’s Ass’,” Kanstudien, vol. 51 (1960), pp. 142-175.


 3.    “The Philosophy of Nature of Andreas G.M. van Melsen” in G. Debrock et al. (eds.), Geloven in de Wereld (Nijmegen, 1985), pp. 120-141.


 4.    “The Philosophers of Gambling” in An Intimate Relation, ed. by J. R. Brown and J. Mittelstrass (Dordrecht etc., 1989), pp. 203-220.


 5.    “American Philosophy Today,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 46 (1993), pp. 717-45.  Russian transl., Put, vol. ?? (1994), pp. xyz-uvw.


 6.    Reichenbach Falls (Or Only Stumbles?):  Reichenbach, Probability, and the Problem of Surplus Meaning,  in Lutz Danneberg et al. (eds.), Hans Reichenbach und die Berliner Gruppe, (Braunschweig/Wiesbaden:  Vieweg, 1994).


  7.   “Philosophie am Ende des Jahrhunderts,” Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie, vol. 43 (1995), pp. 775-   ).


  8.   “Who Has Won the Big Battles of Twentieth Century Philosophy?,American Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 36 (1999), pp. 159-63.


  9.   “The Rise and Fall of Analytic Philosophy,” in Chen Bo (ed.), Analytic Philosophy:  Review and Reflection (Beijing:  ???? Publishing House, 2001), pp. 114-124.


10.  “Perspectives on Nature in American Thought,” in Jean De Groot (ed.), Nature in American Philosophy (Washington DC: Catholic University of American Press, 2004), pp. 157-80.



R.  Autobiographical and Autodoxographical


1.     “H2O:  Hempel-Helmer-Oppenheim,” Philosophy of Science, vol. 64 (1997), pp. 779-805.  [A German version appeared under the same title in the Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie, vol. 44 (1996), pp. 779-805.]


2.     “Futuristics at RAND:  Project Delphi,” RAND Alumni Bulletin, Issue 29 (Summer 2002), pp. 6-14.


3.     “In Retrospect” in George Yancy (ed.), The Philosophical I (Landham, MD.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002), pp. 207-218.


4.     “Nicholas Rescher:  Curriculum Operis” in A. Mercier and M. Svilan (eds.) Philosophers on the Own Work, vol. 9 (Bern:  Peter Lang, 1983), pp. 199-236.

5.     “In Matters of Religion” in Kelley Clark (ed.), Philosophers Who Believe (Downers Grove, Inter Varsity Press, 1993, pp 127-36.  Reprinted in the Sheld and Ward Catholic Philosophy Anthology.


6.     “Plurality Quantification Revisited,” Philosophical Inquiry, vol. 26, no. 1-2 (2004), pp. 1-6 .



S.  Philosophical Logic


 1.    “A Note on a Species of Definition,” Theoria, vol. 20 (1954), pp. 173-175.


 2.    “Definitions of ‘Existence’,” Philosophical Studies, vol. 8 (1957), pp. 65-69.


 3.    “On the Logic of Existence and Denotation,” The Philosophical Review, vol. 68 (1959) pp. 157-180.  Reprinted in H. Feigl, W. Sellars, and K. Lehrer (eds.) New Readings in Philosophical Analysis (N.Y., 1972).


 4.    “The Distinction Between Predicate Intension and Extension,” Revue philosophique de Louvain, vol. 57 (1959), pp. 623-636.


 5.    “The Concept of Randomness,” Theoria, vol. 27 (1961, pp. 1-11.


 6.    “On the Formalization of Two Modal Theses,” Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, vol. 2 (1961), pp. 154-157.


 7.    “Non-Deductive Rules of Inference and the Problems in the Analysis of Inductive Reasoning,” Synthese, vol. 13 (1961), pp. 242-251.


 8.    “On the Logic of Presupposition,” Philosophy and Phenomenological, vol. 21 (1961), pp. 521-527.


9.     “A Note on ‘About’,” Mind, vol. 72 (1963), pp. 268-270.


10.   “Can One Infer Commands from Commands?”, Analysis, vol. 24 (1964), pp. 176-179.  With John Robison.


11.   “On the Logic of Chronological Propositions,” Mind, vol. 75 (1966), pp.75-96.


12.   “Temporally Conditioned Descriptions,” Ratio, vol. 8 (1966), pp. 46-54.  With John Robison.  Reprinted as “Zeitlich bedingte Kennzeichnungen” in Ratio (German edition), vol. 1 (1966), pp. 40-47.


13.   “A Note on Chronological Logic,” Theoria, vol. 33 (1967), pp. 39-44.  With James Garson.  Reprinted in Claudio Pizzi (ed.), La Logica del Tempo (Boringhieri, 1974).


14.   “Truth and Necessity in Temporal Perspective” in R.M. Gale (ed.), The Philosophy of Time (New York, 1967), pp. 182-220.


15.   “Recent Developments in Philosophical Logic,” Contemporary Philosophy, ed. by R. Klibansky (Florence, 1968), pp. 31-40.


16.   “Chronological Logic,” Contemporary Philosophy, ed. by R. Klibansky (Florence, 1968), pp. 123-134.


17.   “Recent Work in Many-valued Logic,” Contemporary Philosophy, ed. by R. Klibansky (Florence, 1968).  Spanish translation:  Desarollos y Orientaciones Recientas en Logica,” Teorema, vol. 2 (1971), pp. 51-64.


18.   “Temporal Modalities in Branching Time Structures,” The Journal of Symbolic Logic, vol. 35 (1970); p. 185.  With Alstair Urquhart.


19.   “Counterfactual Hypotheses, Laws, and Dispositions,” Nous, vol. 5 (1971), pp. 157-178.


20.   “Possible Individuals, Trans-World Identity, and Quantified Modal Logic,” Nous, vol. 7 (1973), pp. 330-350.  With Zane Parks.


21.   “On Alternatives in Epistemic Logic,” Journal of Philosophical Logic, vol. 2 (1973), pp. 119-135.  With Arnold vander Nat.


22.   “The Equivocality of Existence” in N. Rescher (ed.), Studies in Ontology (Oxford, 1978; American Philosophical Quarterly Monograph No. 12).


23.   “How Serious a Fallacy is Inconsistency?”, Argumentation, vol. 1 (1987), pp. 303-316.


24.   “Response to Critics,” Informal Logic, vol. 14 (1992), No. 1, pp. 53-58.


25.   “Zeit und Zeitlogik” in Bertram Kienzle (ed.), Zustand und Ereignis (Frankfurt am Main:  Suhrkamp, 1994), pp. 27-97.  With Alasdair Urquhart.  (An extract from our 1971 book.)


26.   “Truth Conditions vs. Use Conditions,” Logique et Analyse, vol. 38 (1995), pp. 347-59.


27.   Reification Fallacies and Inappropriate Totalites,” Informal Logic, vol 20 (2000), pp. 43-60.


28.   “Epistemic Logic” in Dale Jacquette (ed.), Companion to Philosophical Logic (Oxford:  Blackwell, 2001).


29.   “Default Logic” in Dale Jacquette (ed.),


T.  Symbolic Logic


 1.    “Axioms for the Part Relation,” Philosophical Studies, vol. 6 (1955), pp. 8-11.


 2.    “Some Comments on  Two-Valued Logic,” Philosophical Studies, vol. 6 (1955), pp. 54-58.


 3.    “Attributes vs. Classes in Principia,” Mind, vol. 67 (1958), pp. 254-257.


 4.    “Can There Be Random Individuals?”, Analysis, vol. 18 (1958), pp. 114-117.


 5.    “A Contribution to Modal Logic,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 12 (1958), pp. 186-199.


 6.    “Many-sorted Quantification,” Proceedings of the 12th International Congress for Philosophy (Venice, 1958); vol. 4, Logic, Theory of Knowledge, Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Language (Firenze, 1960), pp. 447-453.


 7.    “Identity, Substitution, and Modality,” The Review of Metaphysics, vol. 14 (1960), pp. 159-167.


 8.    “Must Identities be Necessary?”, Revue Philosophique de Louvain, vol. 58 (1960), pp. 579-588.


 9.    “Plausible Implication, Analysis, vol. 21 (1961), pp. 128-135.


10.   “Semantic Paradoxes and the Propositional Analysis of Indirect Discourse,” Philosophy of Science, vol. 28 (1961), pp. 437-440.


11.   “Quasi-Truth-Functional Systems of Propositional Logic,” The Journal of Symbolic Logic, vol. 27 (1962), pp. 1-10.


12.   “Modality Conceived as a Status,” Logique et Analyse, vol. 5 (1962), pp. 81-89.


13.   “Plurality-Quantification and Quasi-Categorical Propositions,” The Journal of Symbolic Logic, vol. 27 (1962), pp. 373-374.


14.   “A Probabilistic Approach to Modal Logic,” Acta Philosophica Fennica fasc., vol. 16 (1963), pp. 215-225.  (Proceedings of the “Colloquium on Non-Classical Logics” held August 1962 in Helsinki, Finland.)


15.   “A Note on Self-Referential Statements,” Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, vol. 5 (1964), pp. 218-220.  Reprinted in S. J. Bartlett (ed.), Reflexivity:  A Source Book in Self-Reference (Amsterdam:  North Holland Publ. Co., 1992).


16.   “A Quantificational Treatment of Modality,” Logique et Analyse, vol. 7 (1964), pp. 34-42.


17.   “Predicate Logic Without Predicates,” Logique et Analyse, vol. 7 (1964), pp. 101-103.


18.   “Quantifiers in Many-valued Logic,” Logique et Analyse, vol. 7 (1964), pp. 181-184.


19.   “Venn Diagrams for Plurative Syllogisms,” Philosophical Studies, vol. 16 (1965), pp. 49-55.  With Neil A. Gallagher.


20.   “An Intuitive Interpretation of Four-valued Logic,” Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, vol. 6 (1965), pp. 146-154.


21.   “On Modal Renderings of Intuitionistic Propositional Calculus,” Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, vol. 7 (1966), pp. 277-280.


22.   “Recent Developments and Trends in Logic,” Logique et Analyse, vol 9 (1966), pp. 269-279.


23.   “Topological Logic,” The Journal of Symbolic Logic, vol. 33 (1968), pp. 537-548.  With James Garson.  Italian translation in Claudio Pizzi (ed.), Logica del Tempo (Torino, 1974), pp. 211-29.


24.   Autodescriptive Systems of Many-valued Logic,” Proceedings of the XIV International Congress of Philosophy (Vienna, 1968), Vol. 2 (1969).


25.   “On Inference from Inconsistent Premisses,” Theory and Decision, vol. 1 (1970), pp. 179-217.  With Ruth Manor.


26.   “Restricted Inference,” Logique et Analyse, vol. 14 (1971), pp. 675-683.  With Zane Parks.


27.   “Modal Elaborations of Propositional Logics,” Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, vol. 13 (1972), pp. 323-330.  With Ruth Manor.


28.   “Reductio ad Absurdum,” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://www.utm.edu/research/iep).


U.  History of Logic

(See also sections L, O, and P above)


 1.    Desarraollos y orientaciones recientes en la lógica,” Teorema, vol. 2 (1971), pp. 51-64.


 2.    “Russell and Modal Logic” in G. W. Roberts (ed.), Bertrand Russell Memorial Volume (London, 1979), pp. 139-149.


 3.    “Plurality Quantification Revisited,” Philosophical Inquiries, vol. 26 (2004), pp. xyz-uvw.





1.     BURIDAN, John,” The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. by P. Edwards, New York (Crowell-Collier/Free Press/Macmillan), 1966, vol. 1, pp. 427-429.


2.     “LOGIC, HISTORY OF) Arabic Logic,” The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. by P. Edwards (New York, 1966), vol. 4 , pp. 525-527.


3.     “LOGIC, APPLIED,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 5th ed. (Chicago, 1973), pp. 28-38.


4.     “ALBAG, Isaac,” Encyklopaedie der Philosophie:  Wissenschaft in Grundrissen, ed. by W. Brugger, et al. (Munchen, 1975).


5.     LEIBNIZ, Gottfried Wilhelm, The Encyclopedia Americana (New York, 1976), vol. 17, pp. 183-186.


6.     “MODALLOGIK” in Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie, ed. by J. Ritter.  (Basel and Stuttgart, 1983).


7.     “ISLAMIC LOGIC,” Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Vol. 7 (New York:  Schribner’s, 1984), pp. 640-641.


8.     “IDEALISM” in A Companion to Epistemology, ed. by J. Dancy and E. Sosa (Oxford, 1992), pp. 187-91.


9.     “LIMITS OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE” in A Companion to Epistemology, ed. by J. Dancy and E. Sosa (Oxford, 1992), pp. 248-51.


10.   “PROCESS PHILOSOPHY” in Companion to Metaphysics, ed. by E. Sosa and J. Kim (Oxford, 1991).


11.   “REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM” in Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie, ed. by J. Ritter and R. Grunder (Basel, 1993).


12.   “IDEALISM” in The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (Cambridge, 1993).


13.   “IDEALISM” in A Companion to Metaphysics, ed. by J. Kim and E. Sosa (Oxford, 1994), pp. 227-229.


14.   FALLIBILISM” in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy , ed. by R. Foley and P. Klein (London, 1994).


15.   “IDEALISM” in Philosophy of Education:  An Encyclopedia, ed. J.J. Chambliss (New York & London:  Garland Publishing, 1996), pp. 291-98.


16.   “PRAGMATISM” in Oxford Companion to Philosophy , ed. by T. Honderich (Oxford. 1995).


17.   “PREDICTION” in Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed. by T. Honderich (Oxford, 1995).


18.   “AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY” in Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed. by T. Honderich (Oxford, 1995).


19.   “PROCESS PHILOSOPHY” in the Encyclopedia Americana.


20.   “PRAGMATISM” in The Edinburgh Companion to Twentieth Century Philosophy.

21.   “ACTUALITY” in The Routledge Encyclopedia of American Philsoophy ed. by J. Rocks and R. Talisse.





  1.   Reviews in The Journal of Symbolic Logic.  See the Authors-of Reviews Indices:  vol. 16 (1951), p. 329; vol. 18 (1953), p. 375; vol. 20 (1955), p. 334; vol. 22 (1957), p. 441; vol. 26 (1961).


 2.    Reviews of the Lucas-Grint edition of Leibniz’s Discourse on Metaphysics,  The Philosophical Review, vol. 63 (1954), pp. 441-444.


 3.    Review of R.M. Yost, Jr., Leibniz and Philosophical Analysis,  The Philosophical Review, vol. 64 (1955), pp. 492-494.


 4.    Review of the Italian edition of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus,  The Modern Schoolman, vol. 33 (1956), pp. 120-122.


 5.    Review of R. Taton, Reason and Change in Scientific Discovery,  American Journal of Physics, September 1958, pp. 413-14.


 6.    Review of F.A. Lea, The Tragic Philosopher (Nietzsche), The Modern Schoolman, vol. 36 (1958), pp. 124-125.



7.     Review of M. Cranston, John Locke:  A Biography,  The Modern Schoolman, vol. 36 (1958), pp. 136-137.


 8.    Review of R. Crawshay-Williams, Methods and Criteria of Reasoning, The Modern Schoolman, vol. 36 (1958), pp. 237-238.


 9.    Review of John G. Kemeny, A Philosopher Looks at Science,  The Journal of Philosophy, vol. 56 (1959), pp. 970-973.


10.   Abstracts in Historical Abstracts, vols. 5-8 (1959-1962).


11.   Review of H. W. Johnstone, Philosophy and Argument,  Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 20 (1960), pp. 559-560.


12.   Review of K. Popper, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, and N. R. Hanson, Patterns of Discovery,   Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 21 (1960), pp. 266-268.


13.   Review of W. V. Quine, Word and Object,  American  Scientist, vol. 48 (1960), pp. 375A-377A.


14.   Review of Pierre Burgelin, Commentaire de ‘Discours de Metaphysique’ de Leibniz,  Erasmus, vol. 13 (1960), pp. 385-388.


15.   Review of E.H. Madden (ed.), The Structure of Scientific Thought,  Isis, vol. 52 (1961), pp. 590-591.


16.   Review of J. Combès, Le Dessein de la Sagesse Cartesienne,  Erasmus, vol. 14 (1961), pp. 642-643.


17.   Review of Heinrich Scholz, Concise History of Logic (tr. K.F. Leidecker), Isis, vol. 53 (1962), pp. 515-516.


18.   Review of George F. Hourani, Averroes on the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy,  Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 82 (1962), pp. 563-564.


19.   Review of A.H. Johnson (ed.), A.N. Whitehead:  The Interpretation of Science,  Isis, vol. 54 (1963), pp. 306-307.


20.   Review of Muhsin Mahdi, Al-Farabi’s Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 83 (1963), p. 127.


21.   Review of P. Seligman, The ‘Apeiron’ of Anaximander,  Isis, vol. 55 (1964), pp. 498-499.


22.   Review of S. Pines (tr.), Moses Maimonides:  The Guide of the Perplexed, Dialogue, vol. 3 (1964), pp. 97-98.


23.   Review of J. Agassi, Towards a Historiography of Science,  The Philosophical Review, vol. 74 (1965), pp. 115-117.


24.   Review of A.T. Tymieniecka, Leibniz’ Cosmological Synthesis,  The Philosophical Review, vol. 76 (1967), pp. 244-245.


25.   Review of F. E. Peters, Aristoteles Arabus and Aristotle and the Arabs,  The Classical World, vol. 63 (1969), p. 18.


26.   Review of Franz Rosenthal, Knowledge Triumphant:  the Concept of Knowledge in Medieval Islam,  The Middle East Journal, vol. 25 (197l),pp. 119-120.


27.   Review of G.E. Von Gruenebaum (ed.), Logic in Classical Islamic Culture, American Historical Review, vol 76 (1971), pp. 1197-1198.


28.   Review of The Metaphysica of Avicenna, tr. by P. Morewedge, Philosophy East and West, vol. 27 (1977), pp. 120-121.


29.   Review of Fritz Machlup, Knowledge:  Its Creation, Distribution, and Economic Significance, Vol. 1, Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 19 (1981), pp. 88-89.


30.   “In Full Production,” a review of Jan Elster, Explaining Technical Change in the Times Literary Supplement, 26 August, 1983; p. 914.


31.   “Power Grabbing,” a review of Richard Whitely, The Intellectual and Social Organization of the Sciences in the Times Literary Supplement, 9 August, 1985; p. 880.


32.   Review of Scott Gordon, The History and Philosophy of Social Science, in Journal of Evolutionary Economics, vol. ? (1992), pp. ???.


33.   Review of Marcelo Descal (ed.), Cultural Relativism and Philosophy:  North and Latin American Perspective in NAUS:  Notes and Materials for Linguistic Study of the Sacred, vol. 8 (1992), no’s. 1-3, pp. 33-34.


34.   Review of Bruce Mazlish, The Uncertain Sciences in Nature vol. ?? No 33 (May 1999) , pp. xyz.





1.     “Wissenschaftsphilosophie, Massenkultur und das Center for Philosophy of Science,” ein Gespräch mit Nicholas Rescher.  Axel Wüstehube in:  Information Philosophie, vol. 2, No. 2 (May, 1993), pp. 30-36.


2.     “Pragmatischer Idealismus oder idealistischer Pragmatismus?  Interview mit Nicholas Rescher,”  Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie, vol. 42 (1994), pp. 883-904.


3.     “Der Rationalitätsbegriff im ‘pragmatischen Idealismus”:  Ein Gespräch mit Axel Wüstehube” in Axel Wüstehube (ed.), Pragmatische Rationalitätstheorien (Würzburg:  Königshausen & Neumann, 1994), pp. 125-146.





1.     Norman Swartz, Beyond Experience:  Metaphysical Theories and Philosophical Constraints (Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 1991).


2.     Tibor Machan, Private Rights and Public Illusions (Oakland, CA:  The Independent Institute, 1994).


3.     Michele Marsonet, The Primacy of Practical Reason (Lanham, MD:  University Press of America, 1995).


4.     Dan Nesher, On Truth and the Representation of Reality (Lanham, MD.: University Press of America, 2002).

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