Welcome to The Pulitzer Prize Thumbnails Project, where you can read my short descriptions of every book that has won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. The menu on the left will take you to the squibs. (If you don't see a menu on the left, then click here .)
Every year in mid-April, the Pulitzer organization announces its prize winners. Pulitzer juries in each of 21 category make up to three recommendations (with no stated preference) to the Pulitzer board, which then chooses the winners. The board can pick one of the three recommendations in each category or go its own way. All Pulitzer winners receive a $7,500 prize and a certificate (no doubt suitable for framing). The prize for Fiction - the category was called Novel before 1948 - is awarded "for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life." The reigning prize-winner is Adam Johnson's The Orphan Master's Son, which won the 2013 award. The 2014 award will be announced on April 14, 2014.
The copyrights on some of the earliest Pulitzer novels have lapsed or expired, so you can now read them online. The Thumbnails Project provides links to the online text of these novels: His Family (1918), The Magnificent Ambersons (1919), The Age of Innocence (1921), Alice Adams (1922), One of Ours (1923), The Able McLaughlins (1924), Arrowsmith (1926), Laughing Boy (1930), The Yearling (1939) and Gone with the Wind (1937).
Here are some Pulitzer facts of interest:
The first Pulitzer prizes were awarded in 1917, but the committee chose not to name a winner in the Novel (now Fiction) category. The next year, Ernest Poole won the first Novel prize for his book His Family. Except for this distinction, both author and book are now largely forgotten by literary history. The committee did not name a winner in the category 10 other times after 1917. The last time was in 2012, and the time before that was 35 years earlier, in 1977. This is the longest stretch of time during which the committee has always awarded a price for Fiction.
Although there was no Fiction prize in 1957, the Pulitzer judges that year gave an honorary award to Kenneth Roberts for his historical novels written between 1930 and 1956. Only one other conventional novelist has won such a "special award or citation," as the organization calls them: Ray Bradbury (The Martian Chronicles, Fahrenheit 451) was honored in 2007 "for his distinguished, prolific and deeply influential career as an unmatched author of science fiction and fantasy." (That year, Cormac McCarthy's The Road, a vaguely sci-fi novel, won the Fiction prize.) The artist/writer Art Spiegelman received a special citation in 1992 for his graphic novel Maus, and Theodor Seuss Geisel, a.k.a. Dr. Seuss, received one in 1984 "for his special contribution over nearly half a century to the education and enjoyment of America's children and their parents."
Three authors have won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction twice: Booth Tarkington (1919 and 1922), William Faulkner (1955 and 1963) and John Updike (1982 and 1991). You can find out which of their books won the prize by reading through the squibs on the pages that follow.
Other multiple Pulitzer Prize winners among the Fiction winners are: Thornton Wilder, once for a novel (1928) and twice for plays (1938 and 1943); Robert Penn Warren, once for a novel (1947) and twice for poetry (1958 and 1979); and Norman Mailer, once for a novel (1980) and once for nonfiction (1969).
Three authors have won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction posthumously: James Agee (1958), William Faulkner (1963) and John Kennedy Toole (1981). The first two won within a year or two of their deaths, but Toole won his 12 years after his death.
Seven authors won the prize for a first book: Josephine Johnson, John Kennedy Toole, Jhumpa Lahiri, Harper Lee, Margaret Mitchell, Paul Harding and Allen Drury. Only one author - Harper Lee - won for her only book.
Only two novels dealing primarily with Native American characters and cultures have won the prize for Fiction: Oliver La Farge's Laughing Boy (1930) and N. Scott Momaday's House Made of Dawn (1969). LaFarge was not native American, but he lived among the culture for a time. Momaday is a member of the Kiowa tribe.
The first African-American to win the Fiction prize was James Alan McPherson. He won in 1978 - 60 years after the first Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.
The Fiction prize has shown somewhat less gender bias: 25 of the 78 winners have been women, the first being Edith Wharton for The Age of Innocence (1921).
The shortest novel to win the prize was Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea in 1953 (140 pages in its first edition), and the longest was Norman Mailer's The Executioner's Song in 1980 (1,056 pages). In fact, Mailer's book is the only winner with more than 1,000 pages in its first hardcover edition.
Forty-one Pulitzer Prize novels have been filmed, most often for the big screen but occasionally for television, and a few of them have been filmed more than once. The record-holders are The Bridge of San Luis Rey, filmed in 1929, 1944 and 2004; and So Big, filmed in 1925, 1932 and 1953. Most became movies under their own names, although not in four cases: The Killer Angels became Gettysburg, A Death in the Family became All the Way Home, The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters became Guns of Diablo and The Town became The Awakening Land.
War has occasionally been the subject of Pulitzer Prize novels, although the first two "war" novels to win the prize were written by women: Willa Cather's One of Ours (1923) begins in the U.S. but takes its central character to France during World War I; and Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind (1937) takes place in part during the Civil War. After World War II, several war novels won the prize: A Bell for Adano (1945), Tales of the South Pacific (1948), Guard of Homor (1949) and The Caine Mutiny (1952). Faulkner's A Fable is set during World War I in France, and three novels - Andersonville (1956), The Killer Angels (1975) and March (2006) - take place during the Civil War. No novel about the Vietnam War has won the Pultizer.
Seven Pulitzer Prize winners in Fiction have also won the Nobel Prize for Literature: Sinclair Lewis, Pearl S. Buck, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, Saul Bellow and Toni Morrison. All won the Pulitzer first, with two exceptions: Faulkner won his Nobel (1949) before he won the first of his two Pulitzers (1954), and Bellow won both prizes in the same year (1976).
Seven Fiction winners have also won the National Book Award, given since 1950, for their books that won the Pulizer: Katherine Anne Porter, Bernard Malamud, John Cheever, Alice Walker, E. Annie Proulx, William Faulkner (for A Fable) and John Updike (for Rabbit Is Rich). The winner receives $10,000. Only two writers - Richard Ford and Michael Cunningham - have won both the Pulitzer Prize and PEN/Faulkner award (given since 1981) for the same novel, although numerous other losing PEN/Faulkner nominees went on to win the Pulitzer. This award earns the winner $15,000, twice the Pulitzer booty.
Two novels that won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction went on to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama when they were adapted into plays. James Agee's 1958 prize-winning novel A Death in the Family became Tad Mosel's 1961 prize-winning play All the Way Home. And James Michener's 1948 Tales of the South Pacific became the musical play South Pacific, which won a Pulitzer in 1951 for Joshua Logan, who wrote the script, and Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, who wrote the music and lyrics. South Pacific also won the Tony Award as Best Musical of 1950. Numerous other Pulitzer novels - for example, The Grapes of Wrath, The Yearling, A Bell for Adano, The Caine Mutiny, The Color Purple - were adapted into plays or musicals without winning the Pulitzer in their stage versions.
Three Pulitzer Prize fiction winners also won the now-defunct Harper Prize, given biennially from 1924 to 1964 by Harper & Brothers (later Harper & Row) publishers - and selected by a panel of three leading novelists - to the best novel among unpublished manuscripts submitted to the contest. Winning this prize meant that Harper would publish your book (see image at left). The Harper/Pulitzer winners were Margaret Wilson (1924), H.L. Davis (1936) and Martin Flavin (1944). The contest's judges over the years often included earlier Pulitzer Prize winner - for example, Thornton Wilder, Sinclair Lewis, Josephine Johnson, Ellen Glasgow and Louis Bromfield.
Six authors have won the Fiction prize for short story collections rather than for novels: John Cheever, Jean Stafford, Katherine Anne Porter, James Alan McPherson, Robert Olen Butler and Jhumpa Lahiri. In fact, the Pulitzer category that's now called Fiction was called Novel before 1948. No short story collection won the category until Porter's prize in 1966, although the 1948 winner, James Michener's Tales of the South Pacific, is virtually a collection of stories, held together by the thread of a common narrator.
Only one book whose first edition was a trade paperback, and not a hardcover, has won the prize: Jhumpa Lahiri's Interpreter of Maladies. The short story collection only got published in hardback after it won the prize. The 2010 winner, Tinkers, by Paul Harding, was a paperback original published by a small press, but the publisher also issued a very limited hardcover edition at the request of Powell's Books of Portland, Ore.
Several "sequels" have won the Pulitzer: Conrad Richter's The Town continued the lives of characters he wrote about in The Trees and The Fields; Upton Sinclair's Dragon's Teeth was the third of 11 popular novels he wrote about the intrepid Lanny Budd; and John Updike won his second Pulitzer for Rabbit at Rest, a followup to the Pulitzer Prize-winning Rabbit Is Rich, which itself followed up on Rabbit, Run and Rabbit Redux. Similarly, William Kennedy's character Francis Phelan appeared in numerous novels both before and after Kennedy won the 1984 Pulitzer for Ironweed, in which Phelan was the central figure; and Philip Roth's American Pastoral, though not actually about Nathan Zuckerman, features one of numerous appearances by Zuckerman in Roth's fiction.
Although the Pulitzer board prefers to give the prize to a novel "dealing with American life," four winners tell stories that take place entirely in another country and have no American characters: The Bridge of San Luis Rey (Peru), The Good Earth (China), The Fixer (Russia) and The Old Man and the Sea (Cuba). A Bell for Adano, Tales of the South Pacific and A Fable take place in foreign lands but involve American servicemen. A few others - for example, Interpreter of Maladies and Good Scent from a Strange Mountain - take place in both America and the ancestral countries of their characters (India and Vietnam, respectively). The Orphan Master's Son is set in North Korea, but some of the characters travel to Texas for a passage.
Only nine Pulitzer Prize novels made Time magazine's 2005 list of the 100 greatest novels ever written, although eight other winners made the list for books other than their Pulitzer Prize novels. Either the Pulitzer committees have made many forgettable choices over the years, or the editors of Time don't know great literature when they read it. The board of The Modern Library likes Pulitzer fiction even less: Only seven winners made its top 100 novels list in 1998 (with six Pulitzer authors making it for other books), and The Modern Library's readers' poll has only five Pulitzer novels on it (with a mere two making it for other books). Not too surprisingly, The Observer, a British newspaper, only places three Pulitzer novels on its top 100 list, with five winners making the list for other books. Finally, two more lists: from a survey of BBC listeners (two), and from the students of a publishing course at Radcliffe (eight - six of which were the focus of efforts to ban them).
Finally, I have met, chatted and/or lunched with four Pulitzer Prize-winning novelists: John Updike, in 1992, two years after he won his second prize; Michael Cunningham, in 1997, just before the publication of The Hours, his prize-winning novel; Richard Ford, in 2001, several years after he won his prize for Independence Day; and Michael Chabon, in 2007, six years after he published The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay. These meetings were not, I realize, significant moments in the history of the Pulitzer Prize. I just thought I'd mention them.
My Pulitzer Prize Thumbnails Project has grown pretty long, so I've broken it up into sections and created a frames version that makes it easier to move back and forth. Just click the links in the menu on the left and each section will appear in this space. (If you don't see a menu on the left, then click here.) You'll also find numerous images of book dust jacket covers through the Project, and you can click on each one to see a larger image. Some of these covers are first (or original) editions, and some are the jackets of reprint editions.
I've also created links to information on most of the authors, although a few of the winners have very little presence on the web. If you find a link that's outdated, send me an e-mail to let me know. I'm at email@example.com. Or if you have a web page for one of these authors, let me know and I'll consider using your link instead of the one I currently have for your author.
Finally, at the bottom of the scroll-down menu to the left, you'll find links to numerous other book prize sites. The pages will appear in this space. That's it. Click and enjoy. And let me know what you think.
ęCopyright 2011 by
University of Pittsburgh