University%20of%20Pittsburgh%20Logo.gifUniversity of Pittsburgh · School of Arts and Sciences


Department of


History and Philosophy of Science   


Kenneth F. Schaffner

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Distinguished University Professor. Also University Professor of Philosophy, Psychology, and Professor of Psychiatry (secondary). Before returning to Pittsburgh, he was University Professor of Medical Humanities and Professor of Philosophy at the George Washington University. His most recent book is Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine, published in 1993 by the University of Chicago Press. He has been a Guggenheim Fellow and has published extensively in philosophical and medical journals on ethical and conceptual issues in science and medicine. He is a current member of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) -World Health Organization (WHO) Workgroup on Classification and on International Diagnostic Systems, where the task is to advise on the approach and content of the Mental Health Section of the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), due out in 2011. His recent work has been on ethical and philosophical issues in human behavioral and psychiatric genetics, and he is in the final editing stages of a book on Behaving: What's Genetic and What's Not, and Why Should We Care? for Oxford University Press. Dr. Schaffner, who was trained both in philosophy (Ph.D.) and in medicine (M.D.), is a Fellow of both the Hastings Center and the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is a former Editor-in-Chief of Philosophy of Science (1975-80).

Biographical:
Spouse: Jeanette K. Schaffner; Children: Gabrielle
Birthplace: New York, NY
Citizenship: U.S.A.

Contact:
Business Address:
   University Professor of History and Philosophy of Science
   1017 Cathedral of Learning
   University of Pittsburgh
   Pittsburgh, PA 15260
   Voice: 412-624-5896

Home Address:
   220 North Dithridge Street
   Pittsburgh, PA 15213

E-mail:
   kfs@pitt.edu
   kfs12@comcast.net


Education and Training


Undergraduate:
1958-1961    Brooklyn College; New York, NY    B.S., 1961    Physics / Philosophy

Graduate:
1961-1967    Columbia University; New York, NY    Ph.D., 1967    Prof. Ernest Nagel / Philosophy (Major Advisor)

Professional:
1981-1986    University of Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh, PA    M.D., 1986    Medicine


Appointments and Positions


1962-1965    Lecturer of Physics, Philosophy; Brooklyn College

1965-1967    Instructor of Physical Science, Philosophy; University of Chicago

1967-1969    Assistant Professor of Philosophy and of History and Philosophy of Science (New Collegiate Division [NCD]); University of Chicago

Autumn, 1969    Visiting Associate Professor of Philosophy; University of Pittsburgh

1969-1972    Associate Professor of Philosophy and of History and Philosophy of Science (NCD); University of Chicago

1969-1972    Member, Governing Committee of the Biological Collegiate Division; University of Chicago

1972-1973    Associate Professor of History and Philosophy of Science and Philosophy; University of Pittsburgh

1972-1993    Research Associate in the Center for Philosophy of Science; University of Pittsburgh

1973-1990    Professor of History and Philosophy of Science; University of Pittsburgh

1974-1976    Chairman, Department of History and Philosophy of Science; University of Pittsburgh

1975-1990    Adjunct Professor of Medicine (Philosophy in the Biomedical Sciences); University of Pittsburgh

1977-1986    Co-Chairman, Program for Human Values in Health Care; University Health Center of Pittsburgh

1986-1993    Co-Director, Center for Medical Ethics; University of Pittsburgh

1987-1993    Professor of Intelligent Systems; University of Pittsburgh

1989-1992    Director, M.A. Program in Medical Ethics, Department of History and Philosophy of Science; University of Pittsburgh

1990-1992    University Professor of History and Philosophy of Science; University of Pittsburgh

1990-1992    Research Professor of Medicine; University of Pittsburgh

1991-2005    University Professor of Medical Humanities; George Washington University

1991-2005    Professor of Philosophy; George Washington University

1991-2001    Senior Research Fellow; Kennedy Institute of Ethics

2001-present    Faculty Affiliate; Kennedy Institute of Ethics

1996-present    Associate, Center for Philosophy of Science; University of Pittsburgh

1997-present    Adjunct Professor of Philosophy; University of Maryland, College Park

2003, fall    Visiting Fellow, Center for Philosophy of Science; University of Pittsburgh

2006-present    Associate Director, Center for the Philosophy of Science; University of Pittsburgh

2006-present    Member of Core Faculty of the Center for Bioethics and Health Law; University of Pittsburgh

2006-present    University Professor of History and Philosophy of Science, University Professor of Philosophy, University Professor of Psychology (from 2008), and Professor of Psychiatry; University of Pittsburgh


Professional and Scientific Societies


1960 (year joined), Philosophy of Science Association

1963, History of Science Society

1966, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1967, American Philosophical Association

1973, Hastings Institute of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences (now Hastings Center)

1976, Society for Health and Human Values (now ASBH)

1994, American Society for Bioethics and Humanities

1997, National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (professional) (Member of Scientific Advisory Council, 2003-present)

2001, International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society (IBANGS)

2002, Behavioral Genetics Association


Honors


1972, Guggenheim Post-Doctoral Fellowship

1977, Institute for Human Values in Medicine Fellowship

1986, Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1991, Fellow, Hastings Center

1992, Fellow, Association for the Advancement of Philosophy and Psychiatry

2002-present, Listed in Who's Who in Medicine and Health Care (2002) and in Who's Who in Science and Engineering (2003)


Publications


Selected publications: Restricted to books (all) (authored or edited) and more recent articles; sole authorship/editorship unless otherwise indicated (a full cv is available on request with a complete publication list):

BOOKS

Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1972. Book is part commentary and analysis (approximately 150 pages) and part selective reprints (150 pages).

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PSA-1972: Proceedings of the 1972 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. K. F. Schaffner and R. S. Cohen (eds.), Dordrecht: Reidel, 1974.

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Logic of Discovery and Diagnosis in Medicine, K. Schaffner (ed.) Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.

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M. Siegler, S. Toulmin, F. Zimring and K. Schaffner (eds.) Medical Innovation and Bad Outcomes: Legal, Social, and Ethical Responses, Health Administration Press, Michigan, 1987.

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Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine, University of Chicago Press, 1993.

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PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES (selections)

"Ethically Optimizing Clinical Trials," in J. Kadane (ed.) Bayesian Methods and Ethics in a Clinical Trial Design. New York: John Wylie & Sons, 1996. Pp. 19-63.

"Ethical Considerations in Human Investigation Involving Paradigm Shifts: Organ Transplantation in the 1990s." IRB Nov/Dec 1998.

(with H. T. Engelhardt as second author) "Philosophy of Medicine," in Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Revised Edition. E. Craig, (ed.). London: Routledge. Vol. 6, pp. 264-269.

"Genes, Behavior, and Developmental Emergentism: One Process, Indivisible?" Philosophy of Science. 65 (June, 1998): 209-252.

"Model Organisms and Behavioral Genetics: A Rejoinder" Philosophy of Science. 65 (June, 1998): 276-288.

"Paradigm Changes in Organ Transplantation: A Journey Toward Selflessness?" Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 19 No. 5, Sept. 1998: 425-440. (KFS was also guest editor along with Thomas Starzl, M.D., of this entire journal issue.)

"Ethical Implications of ApoE testing for Alzheimer Disease," with A. M.Thomas (first author), G. Cohen, R. Cook-Deegan, A. Roses, J. O'Sullivan, and R. M. Green, Cambridge Quarterly for Health Care Ethics, 7 (Summer 1998): 294-307.

"Complexity and Research Strategies in Behavioral and Psychiatric Genetics," in Behavioral Genetics: The Clash of Culture and Biology (1999) Carson,Ronald A. and Mark A. Rothstein (eds) Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Pp. 61-88.

"Coming Home to Hume: A Sociobiological Foundation for a Concept of 'Health' and Morality," Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (4) (1999): 365-375.

"Medical Informatics and the Concept of Disease," Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21: 85-101: 2000.

"Behavior at the Organismal and Molecular Levels: The Case of C. elegans," Philosophy of Science 67 2000([PSA 1998] Proceedings): S273-S288.

"Preventing severe mental illnesses--new prospects and ethical challenges," with Patrick D. McGorry. Schizophrenia Research Aug 1 2001; 51(1): 3-15.

"Nature and Nurture" Current Opinion in Psychiatry, September, 2001: 14: 486-490.

"Genes, Concepts, DST Implications, and the Possibility of Prototypes: Comments on Stotz and Griffiths, Burian, and Walters," History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 2004;26(1):81-90.

"Behaving: Its Nature and Nurture Part 1"; Chapter 1 in E.Parens (ed.) Wrestling with Behavioral Genetics: Implications for Understanding Selves and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. Pp. 3-39.

"Behaving: Its Nature and Nurture Part 2"; Chapter 2 in E.Parens (ed.) Wrestling with Behavioral Genetics: Implications for Understanding Selves and Society, 2006. Pp. 40-73.

"Reduction: The Cheshire Cat Problem and a Return to Roots," Synthese, Volume 151, Number 3 / August, 2006. Pages 377-402.

"Theories, Models, and Equations in Systems Biology," in F. Boogerd, et. al. (eds) Towards a Philosophy of Systems Biology, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2007. Pages 145-162.

Schaffner, K.F. (2008) "Etiological Models in Psychiatry: Reductive and Nonreductive " in K. Kendler and Josef Parnas (eds.) Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2008. Pp. 48-90.

Schaffner, K.F. (2008) "A Tail of a Tiger, Comment: on Zachar's "Real Kinds but No True Taxonomy: An Essay in Psychiatric Systematics.," in K. Kendler and Josef Parnas (eds.) Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2008. Pp. 355-367.

Schaffner, K.F. "Theories, Models, and Equations in Biology: The Heuristic Search for Emergent Simplifications in Neurobiology" Philosophy of Science, Proceedings of Vancouver Philosophy of Science Association biennial meeting, 2008. 75 (2008), 1008-1021.

Schaffner, K.F. "Philosophy of Method," a revision of an earlier encyclopedia essay on "Method, Philosophy of," Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 3rd edition, M. Schaechter (ed.) Elsevier, 2009.

"The validity of psychiatric diagnosis: Etiopathogenic and clinical approaches," in Psychiatric Diagnosis: Challenges and Prospects, I. Salloum and J. Mezzich (eds.) London: Wylie, 2009. Pp. 221-232

Kendler, K.S. and Schaffner, K.F. "The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: An historical and philosophical analysis," accepted by Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology (PPP), 2009. Comments by Dominick Murphy and Carol Tamminga, and reply by KSK ad KFS. Publication anticipated 2010.

"The Person and Philosophy of Science and Medicine," Submitted to the International Journal of Integrated Care.

"Philosophy of Science Perspectives" with Tim Thornton (first author) in "Conceptual Bases of Psychiatry for the Person," submitted for a special section of the journal Psychopathology.


OTHER INVITED ARTICLES:

"Interactions among Theory, Experiment, and Technology in Molecular Biology: the 'Solution' of the Antibody Diversity Problem" in PSA - 1994, Vol. II., D. Hull, M. Forbes and R. M. Burian (eds.) East Lansing, MI: Philosophy of Science Association, 1996. Pp. 192-205.

"Sense of Self: A Synopsis of the Immunotolerance Debate" by Moderator Kenneth F. Schaffner. In HMS Beagle: A BioMedNet Publication (http://biomednet.com/ hmsbeagle/1997/11/cutedge/synopsis.htm) Issue 11 (June 27, 1997). [An Internet publication, refereed by moderator and an international Debate Group with participants from the Salk Institute, The Johns Hopkins University, the Institute Pasteur, and other institutions.]

"Reduction and Determinism in Human Genetics: Lessons from Simple Organisms," in P. Sloan (ed.) Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Ethical and Theological Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000. Pp. 301-326.

"Genetic Explanations of Behavior: Of Worms, Flies, and Men," in Genetics And Criminal Behavior: Methods, Meanings, And Morals, D. Wasserman and R. Wachbroit (eds.) New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pp. 79-116.

"Extrapolation from Animal Models: Social Life, Sex, and Super Models," Theory and Method in the Neurosciences (Pitt-Konstanz Colloquium 5, P. K. Machamer, R. Grush, and P. McLaughlin (eds.) Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001. Pp. 200-230.

"Clinical and Etiological Psychiatric Diagnoses: Do Causes Count?" in Descriptions and Prescriptions: Values, Mental Disorders, and the DSMs, J. Sadler (ed.) Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. Pp. 271-290

"Reductionism, Complexity and Molecular Medicine: Genetic Chips and the 'Globalization' of the Genome," in Promises & Limits of Reductionism in the Biomedical Sciences. M. Regenmortel and D. Hull (eds.), London: John Wylie, 2002. Pp. 323-351

"Neuroethics: Reductionism, Emergence, and Decision-making Capacities," in Neuroethics: Mapping the Field: Conference proceedings, Steven Marcus (ed.) New York: The Dana Press, 2002 .Pp. 27-33

"Reductionism, Complexity and Molecular Medicine: Genetic Chips and the 'Globalization' of the Genome," in Promises & Limits of Reductionism in the Biomedical Sciences. M. Regenmortel and D. Hull (eds.), London: John Wylie, 2002. Pp. 323-351

"Assessments of Efficacy in Biomedicine: The Turn toward Methodological Pluralism," in Daniel Callahan (ed.) The Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Accommodating Pluralism (Hastings Center Studies in Ethics) Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2002, pp. 1-14.

"Genetics and Human Behavior: Scientific and Research Issues" in S.G. Post (Editor-in-Chief) Encyclopedia of Bioethics, 3rd edit. New York: Macmillan, 2003. Vol 2,pp. 970-978. (This article contains approximately 20% of Glayde Whitney's 2nd edition material on this topic; the remainder was written by KFS).

"Research Methods: Conceptual Issues" in S.G. Post (Editor-in-Chief) Encyclopedia of Bioethics, 3rd edit. New York: Macmillan, 2003. Vol 4,pp. 2326-2334.

"Behavioral and Psychiatric Genomics: Current State and Future Forecasts" in VISION 2033: LINKING SCIENCE AND POLICY IN TOMORROW'S WORLD(2005). Proceedings Celebrating the 30th Anniversary of the AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellowship Programs. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Pp. 64-71 (discussion by Bruce Sterling et al. pp. 72-73).

"Interpretive Practices in Medicine," In press in a University of Pittsburgh-University of Konstanz volume in honor of Professor Gereon Wolters, P.K. Machamer (ed.), Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, estimated 2010.


Professional Activities


Graduate Students (only Directorships or Co-Directorships listed):

University of Chicago

Devra Davis, "Kant, Comte, and the Philosophical Origins of Sociology," Ph.D., 1972.

Vincent Kavaloski, "Darwin and the Idea of 'Vera Causa'," Ph.D., 1974.


University of Pittsburgh

Peter Spirtes, "Conventionalism and the Philosophy of Henri Poincare," Ph.D., 1981.

James Hofmann, "Magnetic Theories of Ampere and Biot," Ph.D., 1983.

Frederick Gifford, "Causation and Explanation in Genetics," Ph.D., 1986.

Lee Zwanziger, "Philosophical Issues in Embryology," Ph.D., 1989.

Justin Sytsma, "Phenomenal Consciousness as Scientific Phenomenon?" (to be defended in 2010).

Or Neeman, "Philosophy and Personality Theory" (Philosophy), in progress.


George Washington University

Meredith Burke, "Genetic Information and Health Insurance: The Roles of Privacy and Fairness," M.A., 1995.


Johns Hopkins University

Laura Snyder, "The Method of Induction: William Whewell and Current Philosophy of Science," Ph. D. 1996.


Grants Received (as principal investigator or as co-director; complete list):

1968-1970 (years inclusive), National Science Foundation Grant to study "Theory and Experiment in the Development of the Special Theory of Relativity," No. GS1924 ($21,000).

1970-1972, National Science Foundation Grant to study "The Logic and Epistemology of Molecular Biology," No. GS-3099 ($24,500).

1972-1973, National Science Foundation Grant to study "Discovery and Justification in the Development of the Operon Theory," No. GS-3099, No. 1 ($9,500).

1973-1974, National Science Foundation Grant to study the "Logic of Comparative Theory Evaluation in Contemporary Immunology," No. GS-37793 ($9,100).

1974-1976, National Science Foundation Grant to study "Reduction and Progress in the Biomedical Science," No. GS-4364 ($19,500).

1975, University of Pittsburgh Research Development Fund, "Value Conflicts Between Restrictions on Research Involving Human Subjects and Biomedical Progress," ($1,000).

1977-1978, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Grant for "Humanities in Health Care," No. MB-0199-01, ($74,500).

1977-1979, National Science Foundation Grant to study "Reduction in the Physical and Biological Science," No. SOC 77-07500 ($45,000).

1977-1978, Public Committee for the Humanities in Pennsylvania Grant for Resident Humanists and Public Forums on Humanities in Health Care ($30,000).

1979-1981, National Endowment for the Humanities Grant for "Topics in the Philosophy of Medicine," No. RO-00164-80-0180 ($51,000).

1980-1981, Department of Health and Human Services Grant for Humanities Medicine (as Co-director, with John Coulehan, M.D., Director), No. ID31 AH 53005-01 ($74,000).

1982-1985, National Science Foundation Grant to study "Response to Biomedical Innovation: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis," (as co-principal investigator with Mark Siegler, M.D., principal investigator) ($148,000).

1988-1991, Vira I. Heinz Foundation Grant for "Clinical Education Training Program (with Alan Meisel) ($446,000)

1992-1995, National Endowment for the Humanities Grant for "Practical Reasoning in Health Care," No. RH-21031-92 ($98,000).

1992-1995, National Science Foundation Grant to study "Theory Structure and Scientific Change in Molecular Biology" ($45,000).

1994, GTE Foundation Grant to organize and host a lecture series on "Progress in Biomedical Technology in an Era of Health Care Reform," March -- May, 1994 ($5,000 + $1800 match)

1997-2001, National Science Foundation Grant to study "Genes, Development, Behavior and Learning: Conceptual and Methodological Issues" No. 9618229 ($120,000).

1999-2002, Greenwall Foundation Grant to study and host an international conference on "Ethical, Regulatory, and Scientific Issues in Early Intervention Clinical Trials in Schizophrenia," ($79,823)

2003-2007, National Science Foundation Grant to research and write "A Conceptual and Social History of Behavioral Genetics," No. 0324367. ($149,870) plus a supplement of ($15,000)


Recent Invited Seminars and Lectures (past 10 years only):

1999

a. "Construction, Connection, and C. elegans: What the Worm Can Tell Philosophers", Center for Philosophy and History of Science, Boston University, Feb. 1999

b. "Practical reasoning in ethics," Roskilde University, Department of Philosophy, Denmark, May, 1999

c. "Ethical, Regulatory, and Scientific Issues in Early Intervention Clinical Trials in Schizophrenia" University of Copenhagen, Medical School, Denmark, May, 1999

d "Ethical Issues in Clinical Research on Early Treatment," NIMH Research Workshop Early Recognition and Treatment of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder In Children and Adolescents, Rockville, MD, May 10-11, 1999

e. "Extrapolation from Animal Models: Social Life, Sex, and Super Models," Department of Philosophy, Pitt-Konstanz Colloquium, University of Konstanz, Germany, May 1999

f. "Biomedical Ethics in the New Millennium: From Clinical and Research Ethics to Cloning and Beyond," in honor of a Mastership Award by The American College of Physicians to William Cooper, M.D. Shadyside Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, June 1999.

g. "Prevention Research: International Programs and Ethics," Session on "Prevention Research" at National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI), 20th Annual Convention, Chicago, IL, July 2, 1999.

h. "Assessments of Efficacy in Biomedicine: The Turn Toward Methodological Pluralism," Hastings Center Working Group on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Hastings Center, Garrison, NY September, 1999.

i. "History, Methodology, and Value Issues Related to Biological Complexity," Conference on Complexity Research & Biotechnology in Agriculture and Medicine, (organized by Charles Sing, University of Michigan), Bozeman, MT, October, 1999.

j. "Evidence-Based Medicine in Assessing Alternative Medicine," Conference on Complementary and Alternative Therapies in the Academic Medical Center,É University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, October, 1999.

k. "Opening Remarks," (and Conference Director) Conference on Preventing Severe Mental Illnesses: New Prospects and Ethical Challenges. George Washington University, November, 1999.

l. "Ethical Aspects of Human Experimentation," NIMH Research Workshop on "Long-Term Effects of Stimulant Medications on the Brain: Possible Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD," Bethesda, MD, December 1-2, 1999.

m. "Assessments of Efficacy in Biomedicine: The Turn Toward Methodological Pluralism," Harvard University Medical School Symposium on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Harvard University Graduate School of Public Health, Boston, December 10, 1999.


2000

a. "Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Orthodox Medicine: A Common Causal Concept?" University of South Carolina, Science Studies Discussion Group. February 20, 2000.

b. "Extrapolation from Animal Models: Social Life, Sex, and Super Models," University of South Carolina, Department of Philosophy, Philosophy Department, February 21, 2000.

c. "Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in Academic Medical Centers: Evidential and Ethical Controversies," Medical Grand Rounds, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, February 21, 2000.

d. "Reductionism, Complexity, and Molecular Medicine: The 'Globalization' of the Genome" Philippe Laudat Conference on Reductionism in Biology and Medicine, Sponsored by INSERM, Abbaye de Royaumont, Paris, France, May 22-24, 2000

e. "Preventing severe mental illnesses: new prospects and ethical challenges," A Plenary Address to the 4th International Conference on Philosophy and Psychiatry "Madness, Science and Society - Florence, Renaissance 2000", Florence, Italy, August, 2000.

f. "Ethical Issues in International Clinical Trials," Fellows Meeting, Hastings Center, Garrison, NY, October, 2000.

g. "Assessing Complementary and Alternative Medicine," American Society of Bioethics and Humanities, Salt Lake City, UT, October, 2000.

h. "Evidence-based Medicine and Its Epistemological Foundations," Philosophy of Science Association Biennial Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, November, 2000.

i. "What is Philosophy and Its Role in Science and the Healing Arts?" Keynote address to World Federation of Chiropractic meeting, Fort Lauderdale, FL, November


2001

a. "Ethical Issues in Molecular Human Genetics: Diagnosis, GenechipsŪ , and Therapies," Department of Medicine Grand Rounds, GWU, March 1, 2001

b. "Reduction, Genes, and Neuroscience: GeneChips and Triangulation Strategies for Behavior," University of Cincinnati, Department of Philosophy, Cincinnati, OH, May 12, 2001

c. One of two speakers at a AAAS-organized Congressional Seminar on "Genetic Testing and the Genes-Environment Debate," June 13, 2001, Rayburn House Office Building, held to facilitate discussion of the Daschle-Slaughter bill. Sponsors: Representatives Louise M. Slaughter and Constance A. Morella. Details and web-links are available at: http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/genetic/seminar2.htm

d. "Genes versus Environment: Explaining Disease in the Postgenomic Era" Department of Biology, University of Strasbourg, September 14, 2001

e. "What is Philosophy and Its Role in Science and the Healing Arts?" Address to Association of Swiss Chiropractors, Basel, Switzerland, September 15, 2001

f. "Preventing Severe Mental Illnesses: New Prospects and Ethical Challenges," Seminar at the annual meeting of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, Nashville, October 2001

g. "C. elegans as a Prototype for Behavioral Analysis: Reductionistic, Modular, and Systems Biology Approaches", Invited seminar talk at 2001 annual San Diego meeting of The International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society, November; program and abstracts available at: http://www.ibngs.org/SanDiego/index.html

h. "Behaving: Its Nature and Nurture," lecture to working group meeting of Hastings Center-AAAS Project on Tools for a Public Conversation About Behavioral Genetics, Washington, DC, November


2002

a. "Behavioral Genetics and Public Understanding," invited seminar at AAAS annual meeting, Boston, February

b. "Behavioral Genetics and Public Understanding," invited seminar at Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, April

c. "Neuroethics: Reductionism, Emergence, and Decision Making Capacities," invited address at the NEUROETHICS: MAPPING THE FIELD" Conference, Stanford University and UCSF, San Francisco, May

d. "Nature and Nurture in Current Psychiatry: Determinism, Genetics, and Neuroscience," a keynote lecture at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Philosophy and Psychiatry, Philadelphia, May

e. "Comments on Turkheimer," presentation at a working group meeting of Hastings Center-AAAS Project on Tools for a Public Conversation About Behavioral Genetics, Garrison, NY, June

f. "Neurodevelopmental Complexities in Worms and Flies: Strategies for Representation and Explanation," Duke University, Philosophy and biology Departments, Durham, NC, June

g. "Behavioral Genetics and Public Understanding," presentation at GENES AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: CONCEPTUAL ISSUES workshop, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, 1-3 November 2002


2003

a. "Behavioral Genetics: A Human Science with Questionable Foundations and Disturbing Implications," Human Sciences Seminar, George Washington University, February, 21, 2003

b. "Ethical Issues in Behavioral Genetics" American Psychiatric Association Annual meeting, San Francisco, CA, May 19, 2003

c."Molecular and Quantitative Behavioral Genetics: What Kind of a Bridge(s)?" The Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Departments of Psychiatry and Human Genetics at the Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, April 2003.

d. "Ethical Issues in Molecular Human Genetics: The ELSI program, BRCA1 from Myriad to Microarrays, and Genetic Privacy," Guest lecture for Biochemistry 236 Fundamentals of Genomics and Proteomics, April 2003, George Washington University

e. "Neurodevelopmental complexities in worms and flies: strategies for representation and explanation" Symposium on "Fifty years of the Molecular Biology of Behaviour" at the The International Society for History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology (ISHPSSB), July 2003.

f. Comments on the Symposium on "Genes, Genomes, and Genetic Elements I: Conceptualizing New Developments in Molecular Genetics" at the The International Society for History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology (ISHPSSB), July 2003.

g. "Explanation and evidence in medicine: standard and genomic approaches, " International School of History and Philosophy of Biology and Medicine (ISHPBM), September, 2003, Nettuno, Italy.

h. "Genes, Behaviors, and the Brain" Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, October 2003.

i. "Ethical Issues in Behavioral and Psychiatric Genetics: Implications for Freedom and Equality," Grand Rounds, Center for Bioethics and health Law, University of Pittsburgh, October 2003.

j. "Ethical and Conceptual Issues in Behavioral and Psychiatric Genetics, " Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Minnesota, Public Lecture, October, 2003.

k. "Basing Behavioral Genetics on the Brain," Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Minnesota, October, 2003.

l. "Reduction: The Cheshire Cat Problem and a Return to Roots," Workshop on Reduction and Emergence, Institut Jean Nicod, Paris, November.


2004

a. "Ethical Issues in Behavioral and Psychiatric Genetics: Implications for Freedom and Equality," Grand Rounds, University of Washington, Department of Psychiatry, Seattle, April, 2004

b. "Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Personalized Medicine and the Human Genome: Pharmacogenomics," Workshop on the NIH Roadmap and PCAST Roadmap, March, 2004, George Washington University.

c. "Ethical Issues in Molecular Human Genetics: The ELSI program, BRCA1 from Myriad to Microarrays, and Genetic Privacy," GWU Biology Department Intro to Biology -- guest lecture April, 2004

d. "Behavioral and Psychiatric Genomics: Current State and Future Forecasts," to "Vision 2033: Linking Science and Policy for Tomorrow's World," AAAS 30 year Fellowship program commemoration, May 13, 2004

e. "General Reduction, Partial Reduction, and Emergence," University of Oslo workshop on "Physics and Biology: Reduction and Complexity", Sept 30-Oct 1, 2004, Oslo, Norway

f. "The Pros And Cons Of Assessing Informed Consent In Early Psychosis: The MacCAT-CR Option," lecture at the International Congress of the World Psychiatric Association, Florence, Italy, November 2004

g. "Conceptual Perspectives on Nosological and Diagnostic Validities: Philosophical Perspectives," lecture at the International Congress of the World Psychiatric Association, Florence, Italy, November 2004


2005

a. "Behavioral and Psychiatric Genomics: Current State and Future Forecasts," President's Invited Speaker of the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology's Annual Meeting, Raleigh-Durham, NC, March, 2005

b. "Genes, Behavior, and Ethics: Current Issues," Lecture to Tulane University's School of Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane's Center for Ethics and Public Affairs, and the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Health, April, 2005

c. "Philosophical Perspectives on Nosological and Diagnostic Validities," presented to the Pinel Symposium on Psychiatric Diagnosis, which concluded the first Conference for the Development of the International Classification of Diseases - 11th revision (ICD-11), Mental Disorders, Toulouse, France, April 15-18, 2005

d. "Theories, Models, and Equations in Systems Biology," presented to the Conference "Towards a Philosophy of Systems Biology," Vrij University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, June 8, 2005

e. "Behavior Genetics in the Postgenomic Era" lecture at First Biohumanities Conference, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, October 15, 2005

f. "The Pros and Cons of Assessing Informed Consent in Early Psychosis: The MacCAT- CR Option" lecture at Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre (EPPIC), University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, October 19, 2005

 

2006

"Etiological Models in Psychiatry: Reductive and Non-Reductive Approaches," and "A Tail of a Tiger!" Comments on Peter Zachar's: "Psychiatry Can Study 'Real Kinds' but Cannot Discover the True Taxonomy of Mental Disorders: An Essay in Psychiatric Systematics." Presented at the Conference on "Philosophical issues in psychiatry: Natural kinds, mental taxonomy, and causation" sponsored by the Center for Subjectivity Research, University of Copenhagen; Co-organizers: Kenneth S. Kendler, M.D. and Josef Parnas, M.D.

"Behavioral and Psychiatric Genetics: Learning from History," presented at "Interpreting Complexity: The Scientific and Social Meaning of Behavioral Genetics," A CIRGE/SCBE Behavioral Genetics Symposium, Stanford University, CA, Tuesday June 6, 2006.

Three presentations at the World Psychiatric Association July 2006 meetings in Istanbul, Turkey:
   1. Key Lecture on "Multilevel Conceptual Models for Biology, Medicine and Psychiatry: Integrating Uniqueness and Universality," 13 July 2006
   2. Short lecture: "Philosophical Framework for Multi-level and Integrative Diagnosis," in the Symposium "Towards an Integrative Diagnostic Model," Juan E. Mezzich and Kenneth William M. Fulford, co-chairs, 14 July 2006
   3. Discussant in Symposium on "Emerging Development of ICD-11 [/DSM-V]" on presentations by Juan E. Mezzich, M.D. and Darrel Regier, M.D., 14 July 2006

“Theories, Models, and Equations in Biology,” symposium presentation at Philosophy of Science Association biennial meeting, Vancouver, November, 2006

 

2007

Informed Consent in the Cognitively Impaired and Mentally Ill" Ethics Grand Rounds, University of Texas-Southwestern, Dallas, April, 2007

"Ethical Issues in Preventive Treatment in Children At Risk for Bipolar Disorder/ Schizophrenia" Psychiatry Grand Rounds, University of Texas-Southwestern, Dallas, April, 2007

Seven Pines Minnesota Reduction in Physics and Biology Workshop, sponsored by the University of Minnesota. Lecture on "Reduction, Partial Reduction, and Emergence," May 3, 2007.

"Theories, Models, and Equations in Biology: The Heuristic Search for Emergent Simplifications in Neurobiology," International Society for History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology, University of Exeter, UK, July, 2007

"Gene P in BPG: A mere shadow of its former self?" International Society for History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology, University of Exeter, UK, July, 2007

"Structural Schemas (unilevel and multilevel): A philosophical perspective," World Psychiatric Association Conference on Integrative Diagnosis and Psychiatry for the Person, London, UK, October, 2007.

 

2008

"Approaches to Problems of Validity of Psychopathological Disorders," Lecture to Psychology Department, Clinical Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, March 28, 2008

"Problems of validity of psychiatric disorders," Noontime talk to Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, April 15, 2008

History and Philosophy of Gene Environment Interaction, at the Workshop for Capturing Complexity: The Scientific, Societal, and Ethical Meanings of "Environment" in Genetic Research, Stanford University - May 9, 2008

"The Person and Philosophy of Science and Medicine," Geneva Conference on Person-centered Medicine, Geneva, May 28, 2008

"Etiological and Genetic Models in Psychiatry: Reductive and Nonreductive Approaches," Graduate Student Initiated ISHPSSB Workshop, Washington University, St. Louis, August, 2008

"Philosophy of science in biology, medicine, and psychiatry," Special Invited Lecture at the World Psychiatric Association Meeting, Prague, September 2008

"Interpretive Practices in Medicine," University of Pittsburgh-University of Konstanz Philosophy of Science workshop, Pittsburgh, October, 2008

 

2009

"Behavioral and Psychiatric Genomics: How Blank is the Slate?," Social Science Roundtable Annual meeting, Emory University, March 2009

"Behavioral and Psychiatric Genomics: How Blank is the "Blank" Slate?," Conceptual and Historical Studies of Science colloquium series, University of Chicago, April 2009

"Obtaining and using genetic information about mental disorders to advance behavioral genetics and improve patient satisfaction and recruitment," Behavioral Genetics Association, Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, June, 2009

"Obtaining and using genetic information about mental disorders to advance behavioral genetics and improve patient satisfaction and recruitment," Society for Practical Philosophy of Science, Biennial Meeting, Minneapolis, June, 2009

Psychiatric Genomics, Progress, and Personalized Medicine, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility, September 2009

"Behavioral and Psychiatric Genomics: How Blank is the "Blank" Slate?, University of Konstanz, October, 2009


Other Research-Related and Professional Activities (fairly complete)

1970-1972 and 1973-1975, Representative of the Philosophy of Science Association to the U. S. National Committee of International Union of the History andPhilosophy of Science of the U. S. National Research Council.

1972, Program Chairman for the Third Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Lansing, Michigan.

1973, Member of Evaluation Committee for the Pfizer Prize, History of Science Society.

1975-1980, Editor-in-Chief, Philosophy of Science.

1974-1975 and 1980-1981, Member, National Science Foundation Research Grants Advisory Panel on History and Philosophy of Science.

1976 and 1991, Chair of American Association for the Advancement of Science, Section L (History and Philosophy of Science).

1977-1982, Editorial Board, American Philosophical Quarterly.

1977, Member, Hastings Center Research Group in Foundations of Ethics and its Relation to Science.

1977-1979, External evaluator of New York University/Montefiore Hospital (Bronx, N.Y.), Program of Philosopher-Residents in Medical Centers.

1978-present, Editorial Board, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy

1978-1980, Member, Committee on Philosophy and Medicine, American Philosophical Association.

1980, Grant Review Panel for Department of Health and Human Services, "Humanistic Medicine Grants."

1980-1985, Chair, Committee on Philosophy and Medicine, American Philosophical Association.

1980-present, Editorial Advisory Board, University of Chicago Press Series on Science and Its Conceptual Foundations.

1981, Consultant on Clinical Reasoning Seminar, New York University Medical Center's Program in Philosophy and Medicine.

1981-present, Editorial Board, Philosophy of Science.

1981-1986, Member, Governing Board, Philosophy of Science Association.

1985, Consultant to National Academy of Science/National Research Council Committee on Models for Biomedical Research.

1986, Member, Macy Foundation Symposium on "Women in Science: Criteria for Scientific Research Program Progress."

1988, Member, Advisory Committee on "Creativity and Discovery" of the Royal Society of Medicine Foundation

1989-95, Editorial Board, Theoretical Medicine.

1989, Consultant to Dr. Wexler's Ethics Subcommittee of the NIH's Program Advisory Committee on the Human Genome

1989, Reviewer for American Foundation for AIDS Research (AmFAR) on the ethics of clinical trials

1990 and 1992, Member, NIH Study Section on Ethical, Legal, Social Implications of the Human Genome Project

1992-95, Associate Editor, Theoretical Medicine.

1992-96, Associate Editor, Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology.

1992-95, Editorial Board of the Philosophy and Medicine Series, Kluwer.

1992-1994, Consultant to University of Maryland Project on "Reassessing Health, Normality, and Confidentiality," Funded by NIH Human Genome Project Center, ELSI (PI: Robert Wachbroit, Ph.D.)

1992-present, Member of Executive Council, Association for the Advancement of Philosophy and Psychiatry

1993, Member of grant review panel of the National Endowment for the Humanities on "Humanities Studies of Science and Medicine"

1993, Associate, Behavioral and Brain Science

1993, Chair, Search Committee for Editor-in-Chief of Philosophy of Science

1993 and 1994, Ad hoc consultant on medical ethics to the National Library of Medicine's study section

1993-present, Editorial Board, Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes.

1994, Consultant to National Institutes of Health on Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of the Brain Mapping Project

1994-1995, Consultant to University of Maryland Project on Genetics and Crime

1995, Association for the Advancement of Philosophy and Psychiatry Executive Council Annual Meeting, Local Arranger and Host.

1995, Consultant to National Institutes of Health on Intramural Ethics Development Program

1997-8, Vice Chair (and Chair 1998-9) of NIH Greater Metro Consortium on Genetics and Ethics

1998, Member, Study Section, National Institutes of Health Research Ethics grants (T15 and K01 types)

2000-2003, Member, NIMH Data Safety and Monitoring Board, supervision of all NIMH depression studies contracts

2000-2005, Member, Hastings Center-AAAS Project on Tools for Public Conversation About Behavioral Genetics

2001-2004, Editorial Board, 3rd Edit. Encyclopedia of Bioethics (section editor for psychiatry and for philosophy of medicine)

2003-present, Member of Scientific Advisory Council of the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill

2004-present, Member of World Psychiatric Association-World Health Organization Workgroup on International Classification and Diagnostic Systems; task is to advise on the approach and content of the Mental Health Section of the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), due out in 2011

2004-2008, Member, Governing Board, Philosophy of Science Association.

2004-2007, Member, International Society for Bipolar Disorders Diagnostic Guidelines Committee. Tasks are to A. Evaluate all current diagnostic systems, B. Elucidate the key similarities and difference among these systems and,C. Arrive at some reconciliation of the existing data that provides a useful organizational schema for diagnosis of bipolar disorder across many different cultures, while outlining the remaining differences for further study. Itis expected that this will be able to influence the forthcoming ICD-11 and DSM-V.

2006-present, Editorial Board, Biology and Philosophy

2007-2010, Member of the National Advisory Board of the Stanford University Center for Integration of Research on Genetics and Ethics (CIRGE). CIRGE was established at Stanford University in September 2004. It is one of four interdisciplinary Centers of Excellence in Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) research created by the National Human Genome Research Institute of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, to proactively identify and deliberate ethical, legal and social issues in current and emerging genetic research. CIRGE is based at the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics, but includes over thirty Stanford University faculty in the fields of genetics, neuroscience, law, history, medicine, radiology, psychiatry, anthropology, and philosophy, among others.

2007-2013, Member, Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility (CSFR), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)


Current Book Project


Currently completing final edits on book ms. with working title of Behaving: What's Genetic and What's Not, and Why Should We Care? A contract has been awarded and signed with Oxford University Press, with book to appear in mid-2010. Draft chapters are available at a separate website: behaving.chapters@gmail.com, password:draft.chapters