STYLE AND FORM MANUAL FOR
GRADUATE THESIS AND
DISSERTATION PREPARATION
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH

Office of the Provost
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260
1995

 
 



TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION
FINAL PREPARATION PROCEDURES

ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS


CHECK LIST FOR THESES
CHECK LIST FOR DISSERTATIONS
INDEX



LIST OF FIGURES

Note: Figures are best represented in the hard copy (paper) version of this document. The figures provided in this Web document are here to give students a general idea of correct form.

Figure 1. Example of Title Page

Figure 2. Example of Abstract Form

Figure 3. Example of Table of Contents

Figure 4. Example of Table of Contents
 
 




INTRODUCTION

This manual sets forth the University of Pittsburgh's requirements for the preparation of graduate theses and dissertations. Individual departments or schools of the University may have additional, or more specific, requirements. It is the student's responsibility to learn of any special requirements that apply and to prepare the dissertation or thesis in accordance with them as well as with the instructions in this manual.

 While the thesis or dissertation is generally the work of the degree candidate alone, if it is the result of a collaborative research effort, the contributions of the student and the other collaborators must be clearly delineated.

The scholarly work done by the student prior to the final preparation of the thesis or dissertation is outside the province of this handbook. It is assumed that once the research is complete, a final draft is examined and approved by the thesis/dissertation advisor and/or the candidate's dissertation committee. At that point, the student is ready to prepare a manuscript for final submission. (For information on the scholarly requirements of theses and dissertations, see the Bulletin of the relevant school or department and consult with the thesis/dissertation advisor.)

 The language in which theses and dissertations are written shall normally be English. Exceptions may be granted by the student's dean with the approval of the thesis/dissertation advisor and committee but only for sound reasons of scholarship. Permission shall never be granted on the ground of inadequate command of English. This manual also assumes that every thesis or dissertation will demonstrate effective communication skills. It is the responsibility of the student that the thesis or dissertation demonstrate clarity, correctness, and organization. A student may use the assistance of a professional editor if he or she receives the prior approval of the research advisor; the editorial assistance is limited to the use of language and not to subject matter content or meaning; and all editorial assistance is acknowledged in the preface of the final document.

Of crucial importance to each thesis or dissertation is the issue of legibility. It is especially important that doctoral dissertations have good quality illustrations and sufficiently dark print to microfilm legibly. Color will not microfilm legibly.

Characteristics which a dissertation should demonstrate are:

After the dissertation has been submitted in final form to the approved office in the student's school or department, it is forwarded to University Microfilms, Inc., which publishes the abstract in Dissertation Abstracts International, microfilms the entire dissertation, binds it, and returns the bound dissertation to the University Library System. The microfilm copy is the official archival record of the dissertation. Submitted theses are bound and placed in the University Library System or Falk Library.

 Questions regarding thesis or dissertation format that are not answered in this manual should be directed to the appropriate office in the student's school or department. It may be necessary to check with University Microfilms, Inc. about any deviations that might hinder their ability to reproduce dissertation material.

 Students may find it appropriate to consult a style manual published by the professional society of their field of study, such as the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, the CBE Style Manual published by the Council of Biology Editors, The Chicago Manual of Style, or the American Institute of Physics Handbook. A student's advisor will identify the correct manual or guide to be used in determining footnote and bibliographic format for a given discipline or subject area. If points in any of the specialized style manuals differ markedly from the requirements for margins, paper, format, etc. stipulated in this manual, the latter take precedence.

Some basic guidelines for manuscript preparation may be found in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (1995), written by Joseph Gibaldi and Walter S. Achtert and published by the Modern Language Association. This handbook is revised every few years, and the latest edition should be available in paperback in most book stores. Another widely accepted handbook is A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (1980), written by Kate L. Turabian and published by the University of Chicago Press. It, too, is revised frequently and widely available in paperback.

Students should contact the appropriate office in their school or department for details on the procedures and deadlines for submitting completed theses and dissertations.


FINAL PREPARATION PROCEDURES

NUMBER OF COPIES

Master's thesis

Students must submit one unbound, unperforated copy prepared according to the specific requirements on the following pages and accompanied by one additional copy of the Title Page. This material becomes the property of the University. Additional copies may be required by the student's school or department.

Doctoral dissertation

Students must submit one unbound, unperforated copy prepared according to the specific requirements on the following pages and accompanied by two additional copies of the Title Page and two additional copies of the Abstract. These materials become the property of the University. Additional copies may be required by the student's school or department.
 
 

PAPER AND DUPLICATION

Submission copy

 The thesis or dissertation must be submitted on white paper of at least 20-pound weight and 8.5 " x 11" size. Should it be necessary to draw by hand symbols, characters, or special markings not found on standard printers, high cotton content paper should be used. The same paper should be used throughout, except in instances where photographs are included (see TABLES AND FIGURES). If no hand-written text is used, high cotton content paper is not necessary.

 Additional copies (if required by school or department)

Offset printing, photocopying, or any other process which produces a sharp, black image on white bond paper is acceptable for copies. Mimeographed copies are not acceptable.

MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION

Print

 1. Whether prepared with or without the assistance of computers or word processors, all theses and dissertations must follow the requirements outlined in this booklet. Any deviations from the forms outlined in this manual must be cleared by the appropriate office in the school or department before the manuscript is prepared in final form.

2. Print must be letter quality, of 10 points or larger, and of a fully legible typeface. Script typefaces are not acceptable. Laser printers are preferred. Other printers may not produce acceptable print for final submission copies. Prior to final submission of theses or dissertations, students are advised to consult the appropriate office in their school or department to determine whether their print will meet University standards of legibility and will reproduce clearly on microfilm.

3. Whenever possible, all textual material should appear in print. Symbols, characters, or special markings not found on standard printers may be drawn carefully by hand with black India ink on high cotton content paper. (See also TABLES AND FIGURES.) Strikeovers or cross outs are not acceptable. Corrections must be undetectable on the original or copy submitted.

Pagination

1. Only one side of the paper is used, and each page must be numbered, with the exception of the first blank page and the Title Page itself, which counts as page i but does not show a number.

2. The preliminary pages, including the Committee Signature Page, the Copyright Page (if used), the Abstract, Preface or Foreword, Table of Contents, and any lists of tables or illustrations should be numbered with small Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, etc.) and centered at the bottom of the page one-half inch from the edge. Remember that preliminary pagination begins with ii; the Title Page counts as i, but the number does not appear.

3. All remaining pages, including text, illustrations, appendices, and Bibliography carry consecutive Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.). On pages carrying a centered heading, such as the first page of a chapter or Bibliography, the page number should be centered one-half inch from the bottom of the page. All other pages should either be numbered at the top, one inch from the right hand edge and one-half inch from the top or centered one-half inch from the bottom of the page. Exceptions to placement of page numbers must be approved by the student's school or department. No punctuation is used with page numbers.
 

Margins

1. The left margin should be one and one-half inches; top, bottom, and right margins should be one inch. Tables, figures, and illustrations use the same margins as text.

2. A subheading at the bottom of a page should be followed by at least two full lines of type. If space does not permit two lines plus a one-inch margin, the subheading should begin the next page. Similarly, a new paragraph toward the bottom of a page should run for at least two lines or be started on the next page. The final few words of a paragraph should not be continued on the next page. At least two full lines of type are required to continue a paragraph on the next page.

Spacing

The text of the manuscript may be double-spaced or one and one half-spaced with the exception of long quotations, footnotes, bibliographical references, and the Index (if included), which may be single-spaced. See one of the recommended style manuals for illustrations and examples. (See also FOOTNOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY.)

 Centering

 When the instructions call for "centering" a heading, title, or other element, the material is to be centered between the left and right margins.

 Headings, Captions, and Subheadings

 Any of the systems suggested and illustrated in the various style manuals may be used, as appropriate. Students should check current practice in the professional literature of their fields and must use consistently whichever method they adopt.

Footnotes and Bibliography

1. Citation forms may vary among disciplines, but whichever form is adopted should be used consistently. Style manuals from specific professional associations or journals will usually provide the appropriate format. If none is specified, the student should use a form recommended and illustrated in one of the general manuals noted on page 2.

2. Footnotes may appear either on the page on which they are cited or at the conclusion of the manuscript, depending on the practice of the discipline or department. If no format is specified, either style is acceptable, but same-page citation is a particular convenience to readers of microfilm.

3. Depending on the requirements specified in the style manual preferred by the school or department, theses and dissertations may or may not have a footnote section. However, all theses and dissertations will have a Bibliography. (See page 15.)

TABLES AND FIGURES

Definitions

 1. The word "table" is used for tabulated numerical data in the body of the thesis or dissertation and in the appendices.

2. The word "figure" designates all other illustrative material used in the body and in the appendices, including graphs, charts, drawings, photographs, diagrams, schematic illustrations of experimental apparatus, etc.

Preparation

1. Tables and figures should be displayed in type whenever possible. If they must be done by hand, black India ink must be used; they must be done neatly; and they must be legible and reproducible on microfilm.

2. All illustrative material should be prepared on the same paper as is used for the text, with the exception of photographs as specified below.

3. Other oversized sheets should, if possible, be reduced to standard 8.5 " x 11" size; however, page numbers and captions must be the same size as the rest of the text (not reduced). If reduction is not possible, pages may be accordion folded, but folds must lie at least one inch in from the right edge and 1 inches in from the left edge of a regular page to prevent accidental cutting when pages are trimmed at the bindery.

4. For dissertations, photographs must be black and white photographic originals or well done black and white photographic copies of the originals. Color photographs and standard photocopies of photographs are not acceptable because they do not reproduce clearly on microfilm. If the use of color is significant to the dissertation, color illustrative materials may be appended. (See Appendices.)

5. As master's theses are not microfilmed, the use of color photographs or other illustrative materials is permitted.

6. Photographs may be inserted in either of two ways: photographs printed directly on 8.5 " x 11" photographic paper may be submitted for binding directly into the volume. The printed image must conform to the margin specifications. Page numbers and captions may be typed on adhesive labels or added with transfer letters and numbers, and affixed in the required locations. Photographs may also be permanently mounted onto high cotton content paper using a heat- or pressure-sensitive dry-mounting process or spray adhesive. Photo mounting corners, rubber cement, staples, tape, and white glue are not acceptable.

Placement

 1. Tables and figures of a half-page or less in length may appear on the same page with the text, separated from the text above or below by triple-spacing. If they exceed a half-page in length, they should be placed on a separate page. Two or more small tables or figures may be placed on a single page.

2. Table numbers and captions are placed two spaces above the top line of the table.

3. Figure numbers and captions are placed two spaces below the last line or bottom edge of the figure.

4. The placement of the table or figure does not affect the position of the page number. (See PAGINATION, page 4.)

Numbering

 1. Tables and figures are numbered in separate series. Each table and figure, including any in the appendices, has a number in its own series. Each series is numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, e.g., Figure 10, Figure 11, Figure 12, etc.

2. If a table continues to the following page, the top line should read "Table 10 (cont'd)." The caption is not repeated.

Captions

 1. Captions, or descriptive titles of tables and figures, should be kept to one line of type if possible.

2. These captions will appear in the preliminaries as the List of Tables and/or List of Figures.

Duplication

1. In photocopies and on microfilm, most colors appear as gray. Therefore, crosshatching or other markings may be necessary to indicate color distinctions on dissertations.

2. If photographs are used, prints should be made from the original negative for all copies of the thesis or dissertation.

Citations

 When referring to a table or figure in the text, use the full word and number, e.g., Table 10 or Figure 6.


ARRANGEMENT OF CONTENTS

There are three parts to every thesis or dissertation: the preliminary material, the text, and the reference material. Each part has several sections, which are to be arranged in the order they are discussed below.

PRELIMINARIES

Blank Page

 Title Page

 1. The title in English is typed in capital letters. Words should be substituted for formulas and symbols in the title. The author's name is typed in full followed by a listing of earlier schools and degrees. See Figure 1 as an example.

2. The submission statement names the school (and optionally the department), the degree sought, the University's name, and the year. See Figure 1.

 3. Theses or dissertations in excess of 650 pages in length will be bound in two volumes. In such cases, Title Pages must be submitted for each volume number (Vol. I, Vol. II, etc.), which must also appear on the Title Page of each volume.

4. One additional copy of the Title Page(s) must be submitted with the thesis and two additional copies of the Title Page(s) must be submitted with the dissertation.

Committee Signature Page

1. For theses, the Committee Signature Page must include minimally the signature in black ink and typed name of the thesis advisor. Alternatively, the typed names, academic ranks, and department affiliations of all committee members and their signatures in black ink may be included.

 2. For dissertations, the Committee Signature Page must include minimally the typed names of the committee members and dissertation advisor and the signature of the dissertation advisor. Alternatively, the typed names, academic ranks, and department affiliations of all committee members and their signatures in black ink may be included.

3. The Committee Signature Page normally is numbered with small Roman numerals (ii) and centered at the bottom of the page one-half inch from the edge.



TITLE OF DISSERTATION (2 spaces from top margin)

by (8 spaces)

Candidate's Full Name (2 spaces)

[undergraduate degree (e.g., AB, BS) , institution], 19-- (2 spaces)

[Master's degree (e.g., MA, MBA), if applicable; institution], 19-- (2 spaces)
 
 

Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of (9 spaces)

[name of school] in partial fulfillment (2 spaces)

of the requirements for the degree of (2 spaces)

[doctoral degree (e.g., Doctor of Philosophy)] (2 spaces)

University of Pittsburgh (9 spaces)

19- (2 spaces)

Figure 1. Example of Title Page



Copyright Page

 1. Copyright privileges vest immediately upon creation of the work, without the requirement of notice or registration. Copyright notice and registration is optional for all theses and dissertations. However, a copyright notice on a dissertation or thesis signals to readers that the author holds the copyright. Registration establishes a public record of the copyright. For U.S. publications, registration is required before an infringement lawsuit can be filed.

There may be unusual complications in claiming ownership of copyright. For instance, some funding sources claim ownership of the resulting copyright. If the dissertation has been published elsewhere, the copyright may have been assigned to the publisher.

The pamphlet Copyright Law and the Doctoral Dissertation: Guidelines to Your Legal Rights and Responsibilities by Kenneth D. Crews and published by University Microfilms, Inc. gives more detailed advice. It is available in the Office of the Provost or from University Microfilms, Inc.

 If a copyright notice is desired, the manuscript should include a page immediately following the Title Page with the following text:

 Copyright by William Arthur Jones
19-- (year of publication)







2. If registration is desired for a dissertation, doctoral candidates should consult the University Microfilms, Inc. instruction sheet for information on copyright procedures, which may be done individually or through University Microfilms, Inc. Copyright and reprint fees are subject to change. Students should obtain current copies of the instructions and agreement forms through the office of their dean or director of graduate studies.

3. Master's theses may be registered directly with the U.S. Copyright Office by the author by calling (202) 707-9100 to request a registration application.

4. Inclusion of copyrighted materials in a dissertation requires that the student obtain a letter from the copyright owner authorizing use of the materials. The letter must also state that the copyright owner is aware that University Microfilms, Inc. will microfilm the dissertation and may sell copies of it on demand. One copy of each copyright permission letter must be submitted with the dissertation in order for it to be accepted by University Microfilms, Inc.

Abstract

 1. An Abstract written in English and no more than 350 words in length must be inserted immediately before the Preface page in all doctoral dissertations. It should be prepared in accordance with the specifications set forth in the instruction booklet issued by University Microfilms, Inc., available to students through the office of their dean or director of graduate studies.

2. The Abstract should state briefly the problem discussed in the dissertation, describe the research procedures or methodology, and summarize major findings and conclusions. The Abstract should not include illustrative materials or tables.

3. The title of the dissertation should be typed in capital letters and centered at the top of the Abstract two inches from the top of the page. The student's name followed by the degree is centered two spaces below the title. University of Pittsburgh and the date are centered two spaces below the name. The text of the Abstract begins at the left margin three spaces below the name of the University and the date.

A sample heading of the abstract follows:



TITLE OF DISSERTATION
Jane Doe, PhD
University of Pittsburgh, 19--

Text of Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Figure 2. Example of Abstract Form



4. The major advisor indicates approval by signing or initialing the upper right-hand corner of the original copy of the Abstract.

5. Two additional photocopies of the initialed Abstract must be submitted with the dissertation.

Preface or Foreword

1. The Preface, or Foreword, is optional and, if used, should be brief. Acknowledgments in the form of a brief statement of appreciation for special assistance or support, including editorial assistance, should be included in this section.

2. Preface or Foreword pages are numbered with small Roman numerals centered at the bottom of the page.

Table of Contents

1. The heading TABLE OF CONTENTS is centered without punctuation two inches from the top of the page. The actual listing begins at the left margin four spaces below the heading.

2. All material following the Table of Contents is listed with the exception of lists of tables and figures, which are listed separately. (See LIST OF TABLES and LIST OF FIGURES, following.) Material which precedes the Table of Contents (e.g., title page, blank page, dedication) is not listed.

3. The titles of chapters, parts or sections are listed in the Table of Contents as well as primary and secondary subdivisions. See examples of two types of Tables of Contents in Figures 3 and 4.

4. Wording in the Table of Contents must be identical to wording of the actual titles in the body of the thesis or dissertation.

5. Table of Contents pages are numbered with small Roman numerals centered at the bottom of the page.
 
 

List of Tables

1. The heading LIST OF TABLES is centered without punctuation two inches from the top of the page. The listing of tables begins at the left margin four spaces below the heading. 2. Wording in the List of Tables must be identical to the captions that appear on the tables in the text. 3. The List of Tables pages are numbered with small Roman numerals centered at the bottom of the page. List of Figures

1. The heading LIST OF FIGURES is centered without punctuation two inches from the top of the page. The listing of figures begins at the left margin four spaces below the heading.

2. Wording in the List of Figures must be identical to the captions that appear on the figures in the text.

3. The List of Figures pages are numbered with small Roman numerals centered at the bottom of the page.

TEXT

Introduction

 1. If the Introduction precedes the first chapter or division as a separate unit, the heading INTRODUCTION should be centered without punctuation two inches from the top of the page. The text begins four spaces below the heading.

2. If the Introduction is the opening statement of the first chapter or division, the chapter title should be centered at the top of the page and INTRODUCTION used as a subheading at the left margin.

3. The page on which the Introduction begins is page 1 of the thesis or dissertation.

Main Body

 1. This section is the substance of the thesis or dissertation, including all chapters, divisions, and subdivisions as indicated by headings identical to those listed in the Table of Contents.

2. All tables and figures should be placed as close as possible to the text they illustrate.

3. Most schools and departments at the University of Pittsburgh prefer that the thesis or dissertation be written as a coherent whole. However, published articles authored by the student and based on research conducted for the study may be included if the student's department and school have a written policy indicating their acceptability. Published journal articles or a section prepared in a journal format may be included either in the body of the document or in the appendix. In any case, for a dissertation, the published work must be logically connected by added text and be integrated into the document in a coherent manner, and sufficient detail must be presented to satisfy the characteristics of a dissertation.

4. If the previously published article is included in the body of the document, it must be presented in a manner consistent with the remainder of the text: i.e., identical typeface, paper, margins, and consistent numbering of tables, figures, and footnotes. Bibliographic citations should be integrated with those for the rest of the document.

5. If the previously published article is placed in the appendix, its size may be adjusted on a copy machine to insure that the margins are sufficient to support microfilming and binding. Appended previously published articles may retain the originally published numbers for tables, figures, footnotes, and bibliographic entries.

Summary and Conclusions

These usually constitute the last major chapter or division.

REFERENCE MATERIAL

Appendices

1. Appendices contain supplementary or illustrative material or explanatory data too lengthy to be included in the text or not immediately essential to the reader's understanding of the text.

2. Appended material is separated from the main body of the text by a cover sheet bearing the heading APPENDIX or APPENDICES centered without punctuation. This sheet is counted but not numbered.

3. If more than one appendix is needed, the appendices may be divided into APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, etc. Separate cover sheets for each appendix are not required, although each appendix must begin at the top of a new page. The heading for each appendix is centered without punctuation two inches from the top of the first page. The title of the appendix is centered four spaces below the heading.

4. Each appendix should be listed with its title in the Table of Contents.

5. Tables and figures in the appendices should be numbered, captioned, and listed in the List of Tables and List of Figures. The numbering may continue the series in the body of the material (e.g., Table 14, Figure 16, etc.), or a separate numbering sequence (e.g., Table A1, Figure A3, etc.) may be used.

6. Non-print materials, such as audio or videotapes, or color print materials significant to the thesis or dissertation may be included in an appendix. For dissertations, two copies are required of supplementary materials which are not capable of being microfilmed. One copy will be placed in a pocket which is part of the binding or in an envelope or box and housed next to the bound volume. The second copy will be retained with the microfilm copy as the official archival record. Such materials must be listed in the Table of Contents as included in an appendix. Students should consult in advance the appropriate office in their school or department for instructions on the preferred container for submission of such materials.

7. As theses are not microfilmed, only one copy is required of bulky supplementary materials, which will accompany the bound volume.

Bibliography

 1. Any books, articles, or other sources that have been read and used, either in direct quotation or by reference, must be listed in a Bibliography.

2. This section begins with a cover sheet carrying the heading BIBLIOGRAPHY centered without punctuation. This page is counted but not numbered.

3. The heading is repeated on the first page of the Bibliography itself centered two inches from the top of the page. The actual listing of sources begins at the left margin four spaces below the heading.

4. The list of sources is single-spaced within each entry and double-spaced between entries.

5. The style manuals recommended on page 2 indicate appropriate formats for bibliographies. Individual departments, schools, or disciplines may have particular formats the student should follow.

6. The Bibliography continues the page numbering sequence which began with the Introduction. The last page of the Bibliography is normally the final page of the thesis or dissertation (unless an Index is made, in which case the page numbering continues through to the last page of the Index).

INDEX

An Index to dissertations and theses is encouraged in fields in which it is usual and appropriate. School or departmental regulations will specify when an Index is required.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                         Page
FOREWORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

 I. INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
 
 

A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

II. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

III. OTHER MAIN HEADING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

IV. OTHER MAIN HEADING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

APPENDIX A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 APPENDIX B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Figure 3. Example of Table of Contents



TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                        Page
FOREWORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

1.0 THE PROBLEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 ORIENTATION OF THIS RESEARCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2.0 CURRENT STATUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1 BACKGROUND. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 IMPLEMENTATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.21 Importance of the problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2.22 The nature of implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

3.0 OTHER MAIN HEADING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.0 OTHER MAIN HEADING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

APPENDIX A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

APPENDIX B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Figure 4. Example of Table of Contents




CHECK LIST FOR THESES

Students should contact the appropriate office in their school or department for details on the procedures and deadlines for submitting theses and dissertations.

MASTER'S THESIS

ADDITIONAL COPIES MAY BE REQUIRED BY YOUR SCHOOL, DEPARTMENT, OR MAJOR ADVISOR.



CHECK LIST FOR DISSERTATIONS

Students should contact the appropriate office in their school or department for details on the procedures and deadlines for submitting theses and dissertations.

DOCTORAL DISSERTATION

ADDITIONAL COPIES MAY BE REQUIRED BY YOUR SCHOOL, DEPARTMENT, OR MAJOR ADVISOR



INDEX

Numbers here refer to the page number of the hard-copy (paper) version of this document.

 Abstract, 2, 3, 4, 11, 19

 Additional copies, 3, 8, 11, 18, 19

 Appendices, 4, 6, 7, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19

 Arabic enumeration, 4

Arrangement of content, 8, 14 Bibliographic citations, 4, 14

 Bibliography, 4, 5, 15, 16, 18, 19

 Captions, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14

Checklists Color, 6, 7, 14

 Committee signature page, 4, 8, 18, 19

 Computer printouts, 3

 Conclusion, 11, 14, 16, 17

 Copies, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18, 19

 Copyright, 4, 10, 19

 Corrections, 4

 Double-spacing, 5, 15

 Editor, 6, 12

 Erasures,

Figures, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19

Final draft, 1, 2, 3, 4

 Foldouts, 6

 Footnotes, 2, 5, 14

 Foreword, 4, 12, 16, 17

 Headings, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

 Illustrative material, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14

Index, 5, 15

 Introduction, 13, 15, 16, 17

 Margins, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19

 Mimeograph copies, 3

 Pagination, 4, 5, 7, 12, 13, 15

Paper, 2, 3, 4, 6, 14, 18, 19

 Preface, 1, 4, 11, 12

 Preliminary pages 4, 7, 8, 18, 19

Printers, 3, 4

 Photographs, 3, 6, 7

 References, 5, 8, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19

 References to tables and figures, 13

 Reproducible copies, 2, 4, 6

 Requirements of depts. & schools, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 13, 15, 18, 19

Roman enumeration, 4, 8, 12, 13

 Single-spacing, 5, 15

 Spacing, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15

 Strikeovers and cross outs, 4

 Style manuals, 2, 5, 15

 Subheadings, 4, 5, 13

 Table of contents, 4, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17
 
 

Tables, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19 Text, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19
 
  Title page, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 18, 19 Type size, 4

 University Microfilms, Inc., 2, 10, 11, 19

 Widows (One-line overleaf continuation of text), 5
 
 



graduate+@pitt.edu

December, 1996