University of Pittsburgh

School of Pharmacy


Robert Gibbs, Ph.D.

Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Director, Cell Imaging Core

University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, 1004 Salk Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261


(Description of Research)


Peer Reviewed Articles:


Li, J., P. J. Oberly, S. Polloyac, R.B. Gibbs (2016) A microsomal based method to detect aromatase activity in different brain regions of the rat using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 163:113-120.


Lu, J., W. Zhao, Y. Huang, H. Liu, R. Marquez, R.B. Gibbs, J. Li, R. Venkataramanan, L. Xu, and S. Li, (2014) Targeted delivery of Doxorubicin by folic acid-decorated dual functional nanocarrier. Molecular pharmaceutics. 11(11): p. 4164-78. PMCID 4224520


Gibbs, R.B., Nelson, D., Hammond, R.E. (2014) Role of GPR30 in mediating estradiol effects on acetylcholine release in the hippocampus, Hormones & Behavior, 66(2): 339-345. PMCID 4131743


Ihunnah, C.A., T. Wada, B.J. Philips, S.K. Ravuri, R.B. Gibbs, L. Kirisci, J.P. Rubin, K.G. Marra, and W. Xie. (2014) Estrogen sulfotransferase/SULT1E1 promotes human adipogenesis. Molecular and cellular biology, 34(9): p. 1682-94. PMCID 3993609


Ramaswamy, S., Dwarki, K., Ali, B., Gibbs, R.B., and Plant, T.M. (2012) The decline in pulsatile GnRH release, as reflected by circulating LH concentrations, during the infant-juvenile transition in the agonadal male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is associated with a reduction in kisspeptin content of KNDy neurons of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus, Endocrinology, 154(5): p. 1845-53. PMCID 3628021


Babalola, P.A., Fitz, N.F., Gibbs, R.B., Flaherty, P., Li, P.-K., Johnson, D.A. (2012) The Effects of The Steroid Sulfatase Inhibitor (p-o-sulfamoyl)–Tetradecanoyl Tyramine (DU-14) on Learning and Memory in Rats with Selective Lesion of Septal-Hippocampal Cholinergic Tract, Neurobiol. Learning and Memory, 98(3): 303-310. PMCID: 3491137


Hammond, R., Nelson, D., Kline, E., and Gibbs, R.B. (2012) Chronic treatment with a GPR30 antagonist impairs acquisition of a spatial learning task in young female rats, Hormones & Behavior, 62(4):367-74. PMCID: 3477261


Zhang, Y., Huang, Y., Zhang, P., Gao, X., Gibbs, R.B., and Li, S. (2012) Incorporation of a selective sigma-2 receptor ligand enhances uptake of liposomes by multiple cancer cells, International Journal of Nanomedicine, 506(2): 261-265. PMCID: 3462014


Cai, L., Gibbs, R.B., Johnson, D.A. (2012) Recognition of novel objects and their location in rats with selective cholinergic lesions of the medial septum. Neuroscience Letters, 506(2): 261-265. PMID: 22119001


Gibbs, R.B., Chipman, A.M., Hammond, R. and Nelson, D. (2011) Galanthamine Plus Estradiol Treatment Enhances Cognitive Performance in Aged Ovariectomized Rats, Horm. & Behav.60:607-616. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.08.010.PMID: 3210334


Gibbs, R.B., Chipman, A.M., and Nelson, D. (2011) Donepezil Plus Estradiol Treatment Enhances Learning and Delay-Dependent Memory Performance by Young Ovariectomized Rats with Partial Loss of Septal Cholinergic Neurons, Horm. & Behav., 59(4): 503-11. DOI S0018-506X(11)00026-2 [pii] 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.01.011; PMID 3081392


Hammond, R.*, and Gibbs, R.B. (2011) GPR30 is positioned to mediate estrogen effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and cognitive performance, Brain Res, 1379:53-60, doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.11.098; PMID 3046317


Pokala, V.N., Witt-Enderby, P.A., Gibbs, R.B., and Johnson, D.A. (2010). Selective septohippocampal cholinergic lesioning in rat brain: Effects on muscarinic receptor function and secretase enzyme activity. Curr. Topics in Pharmacol. 14: 73-78.


Kline, A.E., McAloon, R.L., Henderson, K.A., Bansal, U.K., Ganti, B.M., Ahmed, R.H., Gibbs, R.B. and Sozda, C.N. (2010) Evaluation of a Combined Therapeutic Regimen of 8-OH-DPAT and Environmental Enrichment After Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury, J. Neurotrauma, 27:11, 2021-2032. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2010.1535; PMID 2978058


Hammond, R.*, Nelson, D., and Gibbs, R.B. (2010) GPR30 co-localizes with cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and enhances potassium-stimulated acetylcholine release in the hippocampus. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(2):182-192, DOI: 10.1016/j.psyceuen.2010.07.007. PMID: 2994977


Gibbs, R.B. (2010) Does Short-Term Estrogen Therapy Produce Lasting Benefits In Brain? Endocrinology, 15(3): 843-845.


Gibbs, R.B. (2010) Estrogen therapy and cognition: A review of the cholinergic hypothesis, Endocrine Reviews 31(2): 224-253. PMID: 2852210.


Gibbs, R.B. (2009) Animal Studies that Support Estrogen Effects on Cognitive Performance and the Cholinergic Basis of the Critical Period Hypothesis, In: Hormones, Cognition and Dementia: State of the Art and Emergent Therapeutic Strategies, E. Hogervorst, V. Henderson, R.B. Gibbs, and R. Brinton, Eds., Cambridge University  Press, Cambridge, UK.


Ramaswamy, Gibbs, R.B., Plant, T.M. (2009) Studies of the localization and action of kisspeptin within the pituitary of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 10: 795-804. PMCID: 2760459


Hammond, R., Mauk, R., Ninaci, D., Nelson, D., and Gibbs, R.B. (2009) Chronic treatment with estrogen receptor agonists restores acquisition of a spatial memory task in young ovariectomized rats. Horm. & Behav., 56: 309-314.


Gibbs, R.B., Mauk, R., Nelson, D., Johnson, D.A. (2009) Donepezil treatment restores the ability of estradiol to enhance cognitive performance in aged rats: Evidence for the cholinergic basis of the critical period hypothesis. Horm. & Behav., 56: 73-83. NIHMS123055, Publ.ID: YHBEH2819


Fitz, N., Gibbs, R.B., and Johnson, D. (2008) Selective Lesions of Septal Cholinergic Neurons in Rats Impairs Acquisition of a Delayed Matching to Position T-maze Task by Delaying the Shift from a Response to a Place Strategy, Brain Res. Bull., 77: 356-360.


Ramaswamy, S., Guerriero, K.A., Gibbs, R.B., Plant, T.M. (2008) Interactions between kisspeptin and GnRH Neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as revealed by double immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Endocrinology, 149 (9): 4387-95.


Gibbs, R.B. and Johnson, D.A. (2008) Sex specific effects of gonadectomy and hormone treatment on acquisition of a 12-arm radial maze task by Sprague-Dawley rats. Endocrinology, 149(6): 3176-3183, PMC2408814.


Gibbs, R.B. (2007) Estradiol enhances DMP acquisition via a mechanism not mediated by turning strategy, but which requires basal forebrain cholinergic projections. Horm. & Behav., 52: 352-359, NIHMS 30086.


Gibbs, R.B. and Johnson, D.A. (2007) Cholinergic lesions produce task-selective effects on delayed matching to position and configural association learning related to response pattern and strategy. Neurobiol. Learning and Memory, 88: 19-32, PMC1991294.


Lu, C., Walker, W.H., Sun, J., Weisz, O.A., Gibbs, R.B., Witchel, S.F., Sperling, M.A., and Menon, R.K. (2006) Insulin-like peptide 6 (Insl6): Characterization of secretory status and post-translational modification. Endocrinol. 147(12): 5611-5623.


Gibbs, R.B., Edwards, D., Lazar, N., Nelson, D., Talameh, J. (2006) Effects of long-term hormone treatment and or tibolone on monoamines and monoamine metabolites in the brains of ovariectomized, Cynomologous monkeys.  J. Neuroendocrinol. 18: 643-654.


Fitz, N, Gibbs, R.B., and Johnson, D. (2006) Aversive stimulus attenuates impairment of acquisition in a delayed match to position T-maze task caused by a selective lesion of septohippocampal cholinergic projections.  Brain Research Bulletin 69:660-665, PMC2366805.


Poloyac, S.M., Rohan, L.C., Janjic, J.M., Gibbs, R.B., Kroboth, P.D.K., Smith, R.B. (2005) GEAR-UP (Graduate Education And Research at the University of Pittsburgh): A Program to Educate Students about Pharmaceutical Research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 69(5): 1-7.

Gibbs, R.B. (2005) Testosterone and Estradiol Produce Different Effects on Cognitive Performance in Male Rats. Horm. & Behav., 48: 268-277, PMC2376813.

Thomas, K., Sung, D-Y, Yang, J, Johnson, K., Thompson, W., Millette, C., McCarrey, J., Breitberg, A., Gibbs, R.B., Walker, W. (2005) Identification, characterization and functional analysis of Sp1 transcript variants expressed in germ cells during mouse spermatogenesis. Biol. of Reprod., 72: 898-907.

Gibbs, R.B., Gabor, R., Cox, T., Johnson, D.A. (2004) Raloxifene enhances cholinergic function, but not learning, in ovariectomized rats. Psychoneuroendocrinol., 29: 741-748.

Pongrac, J.L., Gibbs, R.B., DeFranco, D.B. (2004) Estrogen-mediated differential regulation of cholinergic expression in basal forebrain neurons requires kinase activity. Neurosci., 124: 809-816.

Gibbs, R.B., Gabor, R. (2003) Estrogen and Cognition: Applying Preclinical findings to Clinical Perspectives. J. Neurosci. Res., 74: 637-643.

Rudick, C.N., Gibbs, R.B., and Woolley, C.S. (2003) A role for the basal forebrain cholinergic system in estrogen-induced disinhibition of hippocampal pyramidal cells. J. Neurosci., 23(11): 4479-4490.

Gibbs, R.B. (2003) Effects of aging and long-term hormone replacement on cholinergic neurons in the medial septum and nucleus basalis magnocellularis of ovariectomized rats. J. Neuroendocrinol., 15: 477-485.

Gabor, R., Nagle, R., Johnson, D.A., and Gibbs, R.B. (2003) Estrogen enhances potassium-stimulated acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus. Brain Research, 962: 244-247.

Gibbs, R.B. (2002) Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are necessary for estrogen to enhance acquisition of a delayed matching to position T-maze task. Horm. & Behav., 42:245-257.

Gibbs, R.B., Nelson, D., Anthony, M.S., and Clarkson, T.B. (2002) Effects of long-term hormone replacement and of tibolone on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in the brains of ovariectomized, cynomologous monkeys. Neuroscience, 113(4):907-914.

Johnson, D.A., Zambon, N.J., and Gibbs, R.B. (2002) Selective lesions of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum by 192 IgG-Saporin impairs learning of a delayed matching to position T-maze paradigm. Brain Research, 943:132-141.

Gibbs, R.B. (2000) Effects of gonadal hormone replacement on measures of basal forebrain cholinergic function. Neurosci., 101(4):931-938.

Aggarwal, P. and Gibbs, R.B. (2000) Estrogen replacement does not prevent the loss of choline acetyltransferase positive cells in the basal forebrain following either neurochemical or mechanical lesions. Brain Research, 882:75-85.

Gibbs, R.B. (2000) Long-term treatment with estrogen and progesterone enhances acquisition of a spatial memory task by ovariectomized aged rats. Neurobiol. of Aging, 21: 107-116.

Gibbs, R.B. (1999) Estrogen replacement enhances acquisition of a spatial memory task and reduces deficits associated with hippocampal muscarinic receptor inhibition. Hormones & Behavior 36: 222-233.

Gibbs, R.B. (1999) Treatment with estrogen and progesterone affects relative levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein in different regions of the adult rat brain. Brain Research 844(1-2): 20-27.

Gibbs, R.B., Aggarwal, P. (1998) Estrogen and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: Implications for brain aging and Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive decline, Hormones & Behavior 34:98-111.

Gibbs, R.B., Burke, A.M., and Johnson, D.A. (1998) Estrogen replacement attenuates effects of scopolamine and lorazepam on memory acquisition and retention, Hormones & Behavior 34:112-125.

Gibbs, R.B. (1998) Impairment of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons associated with aging and long-term hormone deprivation in rats, Exp. Neurol. 151: 289-302.

Gibbs, R.B. (1998) Changes in relative levels of trkA and BDNF mRNA, but not NGF mRNA, across the estrous cycle and in response to acute hormone replacement, Brain Research 787: 259-268.

McCarthy, M.M., Besmer, H.R., Jacobs, S.C., Keidan, G.M.O., and Gibbs, R.B. (1997) Influence of maternal grooming, sex and age on Fos immunoreactivity in the preoptic area of neonatal rats: implications for sexual differentiation, Dev. Neurosci. 19: 488-496.

Gibbs, R.B. (1997) Effects of estrogen on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons vary as a function of dose and duration of treatment, Brain Research 757: 10-16.

Gibbs, R.B. and Martynowski, C. (1997) Nerve growth factor induces Fos-like immunoreactivity within identified cholinertgic neurons in the adult rat basal forebrain, Brain Research 753: 141-151.

Gibbs, R.B., Hashash, A., and Johnson, D.A. (1997) Effects of estrogen on potassium-evoked acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and overlying cortex of adult rats, Brain Research 749: 143-146.

Okano, H.J., Pfaff, D.W., and Gibbs, R.B., (1996) Expression of EGFR-, p75NGFR-, and PSTAIR (cdc2)-like Immunoreactivity by Proliferating Cells in the Adult Rat Hippocampal Formation and Forebrain, Dev. Neurosci. 15: 199-209.

Gibbs, R.B. (1996) Expression of estrogen receptor-like immunoreactivity by different subgroups of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in gonadectomized male and female rats, Brain Research 720: 61-68.

Gibbs, R.B. (1996) Fluctuations in Relative Levels of Choline Acetyltransferase mRNA in Different Regions of the Rat Basal Forebrain Across the Estrous Cycle: Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone, J. Neurosci. 16(3): 1049-1055.

Pfaus, J.G., A. Jakob, S.P. Kleopoulos, R.B. Gibbs, and D.W. Pfaff, (1994) Sexual stimulation induces Fos immunoreactivity within GnRH neurons of the female rat preoptic area: interaction with steroid hormones, Neuroendocrinol. 60: 283-290.

Gibbs, R.B., D-H. Wu, L. Hersh, and D.W. Pfaff, (1994) Effects of estrogen on relative levels of ChAT, TrkA and NGF mRNAs in the rat forebrain and hippocampal formation, Exp. Neurol., 129: 70-80.

Gibbs, R.B. and D.W. Pfaff (1993) In situ hybridization detection of trkA mRNA in brain: Distribution, co-localization with p75NGFR and up-regulation by nerve growth factor. J. Comp. Neurol. 341: 324-339.

Koibuchi, N., R.B. Gibbs, K.E. Jones, S. Yamaoka, W.W. Chin, D.W. Pfaff, and M. Suzuki (1993) Increase in c-erbAa2 mRNA in the parvocellular region of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following thyroidectomy detected by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry in the adult male rat. Neurosci. Lett. 164: 159-162.

Pfaus, J.G., S.P. Kleopoulos, C.V. Mobbs, R.B. Gibbs, and D.W. Pfaff, (1993) Fos and Jun expression in the female rat forebrain following hormone treatment and sexual stimulation. Brain Research 624: 253-267.

Okano, H.J., D.W. Pfaff, and R.B. Gibbs (1993) RB and cdc2 expression in the adult rat brain: Correlations with 3H-thymidine incorporation. J. Neurosci. 13(7): 2930-2938.

Gibbs, R.B., M.M. McCarthy, D.W. Pfaff (1993) Nerve growth factor affects defense-related behaviors, but not lordosis, in ovariectomized, estrogen-treated rats. Brain Research 610: 256-266.

Okano, H.J., D.W. Pfaff, and R.B. Gibbs (1992) Role of local environmental factors in determining tissue-specific effects of estrogen: Examination of uterine tissues transplanted to brain. Molec. & Cell. Endocrinol. 87: 179-192.

Gibbs, R.B. and D.W. Pfaff (1992) Effects of estrogen and fimbria/fornix transection on p75NGFR and ChAT expression in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca. Experimental Neurology 16: 23-39.

Chastrette, N., D.W. Pfaff, and R.B. Gibbs (1991) Effects of daytime and nighttime stress on Fos-like immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and other brain regions. Brain Research 563: 339-344.

Koibuchi, N., R.B. Gibbs, M. Suzuki, and D.W. Pfaff (1991) Thyroidectomy induces Fos expression by TRH-containing neurons located in the adult rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology 129(6): 3208-3216.

Gibbs, R.B., M.V. Chao, and D.W. Pfaff (1991) Effects of fimbria/fornix and angular bundle transection on expression of the p75NGFR mRNA by cells in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca: Correlations with cell survival, synaptic reorganization and sprouting. Molec. Brain Res. 11: 207-219.

Gibbs, R.B. A. Lombardino, and D.W. Pfaff, (1990) Sex steroids and Fos expression in the CNS of prepubertal and newborn rats. Molec. and Cell. Neurosci. 1: 250-261.

Gibbs, R.B., C.V. Mobbs, and D.W. Pfaff, (1990) Sex steroids and Fos expression in the rat brain and uterus. Molec. and Cell. Neurosci. 1: 29-40.

Russell, M.J., V.K. Vijayan, R.B. Gibbs, J.W. Geddes, C.H. Jacobson, and C.W. Cotman, (1990) Long-term survival of neural transplants to senescence in rats. Exp. Neurol. 108: 105-108.

Gibbs, R.B., J.T. McCabe, C.R. Buck, M.V. Chao, and D.W. Pfaff, (1989) Expression of NGF receptor in the rat forebrain detected with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Molec. Brain Res. 6: 275-287.

Joyce, J.N., R.B. Gibbs, C.W. Cotman, and J.F. Marshall, (1989) Regulation of muscarinic receptors in hippocampus following cholinergic denervation and reinnervation by septal and striatal transplants. J. Neurosci. 9: 2776-2791.

Joyce, J.N., R.B. Gibbs, C.W. Cotman, and J.F. Marshall, (1989) Regulation of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors by embryonic septal grafts showing cholinergic innervation of host hippocampus. Brain Res. 78: 109-115.

Anderson, K.J., R.B. Gibbs, and C.W. Cotman, (1988) Transmitter phenotype is a major determinant in the specificity of synapses formed by cholinergic neurons transplanted to the hippocampus. Neuroscience 25: 19-25.

Gibbs, R.B., J. Yu, and C.W. Cotman, (1987) Entorhinal transplants and spatial memory abilities in rats. Behav. Brain Res. 26: 29-35.

Gibbs, R.B., D.L. Needels, J. Yu, and C.W. Cotman, (1987) Effects of entorhinal lesions on trophic activities present in rat entorhinal cortex and hippocampus as studied using primary cultures of entorhinal and septal tissues. J. Neurosci. Res. 18: 274-288.

Gibbs, R.B. and C.W. Cotman, (1987) Factors affecting survival and outgrowth from transplants of entorhinal cortex. Neuroscience 21(3): 699-706.

Gibbs, R.B., K.J. Anderson, and C.W. Cotman, (1986) Factors affecting innervation in the CNS: Comparison of three cholinergic cell types transplanted to the hippocampus of adult rats. Brain Research 383: 362-366.

Gibbs, R.B., S.K.R. Pixley, and C.W. Cotman, (1986) Transplantation of septal neurons maintained in long-term culture. Brain Research 382: 409-415.

Anderson, K.J., R.B. Gibbs, P.M. Salvaterra, and C.W. Cotman, (1986) Ultrastructural characterization of identified cholinergic neurons transplanted to the hippocampal formation of the rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 249: 279-292.

Thompson, R., R.B. Gibbs, G.A. Ristic, C.W. Cotman, and J. Yu, (1986) Lack of correlation between cortical levels of choline acetyltransferase and learning scores in rats with globus pallidus lesions. Brain Research 367: 402-404.

Thompson, R., R.B. Gibbs, G.A. Ristic, C.W. Cotman, and J. Yu, (1986) Learning deficits in rats with early neurotoxic lesions to the globus pallidus, substantia nigra, median raphe, or pontine reticular formation. Physiol. Behav. 37: 141-151.

Gibbs, R.B., E.W. Harris, and C.W. Cotman, (1985) Replacement of damaged cortical projections by homotypic transplants of entorhinal cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 237: 47-64.

Cotman, C.W., M. Nieto-Sampedro, and R.B. Gibbs (1984) Enhancing the self-repairing potential of the CNS after injury. Central Nervous System Trauma 1(1): 3-14.


Book Chapters:


Gibbs, R.B. (2017) Effects of Estradiol on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Impact Cognitive Performance and Age-Related Cognitive Decline, In: Estrogens and Memory: Basic Research and Clinical Implications, K. Frick, Ed., Oxford Press, London, UK., In Press.  


Gibbs, R.B. (2009) Animal Studies that Support Estrogen Effects on Cognitive Performance and the Cholinergic Basis of the Critical Period Hypothesis, In: Hormones, Cognition and Dementia: State of the Art and Emergent Therapeutic Strategies, E. Hogervorst, V. Henderson, R.B. Gibbs, and R. Brinton, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK., 178-214.  


Gibbs, R.B., (2006) Preclinical data relating to estrogen’s effects on cognitive performance, In: Estrogen’s Effects on Brain Function: What’s Next, N. Rasgon, Ed. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD, 9-45.


Gibbs, R.B., (2002) Potential mechanisms for the effects of estrogen on cognitive processes: role of basal forebrain cholinergic projections, In: Neuroplasticity, Development, and Steroid Action, Handa, Hayashi, Terasawa, Kawata, Eds., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 117-129.

Gibbs, R.B. (2000) Oestrogen and the cholinergic hypothesis: implications for estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, In: Neuronal and Cognitive Effects of Oestrogens (Novartis Found. Symp. 230), J. Goode, Ed., Wiley, Chichester, 94-106.

Gibbs, R.B. (2000) Effects of estrogen on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and cognition: implications for brain aging and dementia in women, In: Hormones and Aging and Mental Disorders, ed. M. Morrison, Cambridge University Press, 183-222.

Gibbs, R.B. (1994) Estrogen and nerve growth factor-related systems in brain: effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and implications for learning and memory processes and aging, In: Hormonal Restructuring of the Adult Brain: Basic and Clinical Perspectives, ed. V. H. Luine, NYAS, NY, NY.

Nieto-Sampedro, M., P. Kesslak, R.B. Gibbs, and C.W. Cotman, (1987) Effects of conditioning lesions on transplant survival and connectivity. In: Cell and Tissue Transplantation into the Adult Brain. Annal. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 495: 108-119.

Cotman, C.W., R.B., Gibbs, and M. Nieto-Sampedro, (1987) Synapse turnover in the mammalian CNS. In: The Dahlem Workshop Report: Neural and Molecular mechanisms of Learning, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 375-396.

Cotman, C.W. and R.B. Gibbs, (1984) Methods for transplanting CNS tissues to the CNS of adult and developing mammals. In: Plasticity in Neurobiology: Cell to Behavior, Society for Neurosciences Short Course I Syllabus, 16-29.

Description of Research

Robert Gibbs - CV

Other sites of interest:

School of Pharmacy

PhD Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences

Center for Research in Reproductive Physiology

Alzheimer's Disease Research Center