In Schmalkalden there once lived a man by the name of Jörle Knix. During his lifetime he repeatedly encroached upon his neighbors' adjoining fields by moving the boundary stones, thus dishonestly enlarging his own lands.
After his death he was denied eternal peace, and until the present day Jörle Knix can be seen in his field as a fiery man with his head under his arm and a glowing hoe on his shoulder. There, without pause, he jumps over the boundary stones that he moved.
In Ehringen, a village between Wolfhagen and Volkmarsen, there once lived a peasant who was hated and cursed by everyone, for it was his custom to plow one or more furrows into his neighbors' fields whenever he plowed his own lands, thus enriching himself. However, after his death he was punished for these acts. Every night he is now damned to wander about the fields that dishonestly enlarged in this manner.
On the main road from Nenndorf to Hannover in the vicinity of the village of Eberloh, right next to the road, there can be seen seven upright stones spaced like footsteps. They have been carefully preserved even to this day. They are called the seven steps, and the following legend is associated with them:
Many years ago two peasants came into conflict about the boundary between their adjoining fields. The one accused the other of plowing away some of his land. The accused man swore with an oath that he was innocent. Later the accuser wanted to prove that his neighbor had perjured himself, and invited the court to see the fields for themselves.
The person who had sworn the oath appeared as well, and said, "If I have sworn falsely then may God grant that I take no more than seven steps." With his seventh step he disappeared, and was never seen again.
In Klein-Paaren there was once a peasant who, during his lifetime, plowed away the edges of his neighbors' fields, then afterwards moved the boundary stones. Heaven punished him for this. He had scarcely died before he began appearing in the night at the place where he had sinned. He was seen there busily digging at the land he had plowed away. He was also often seen panting and carrying a heavy boundary stone about. He would call out in misery, "Where shall I set it down? Where shall I set it down?"
This was often heard at midnight until finally the preacher went out to that place and said, "In God's name, set it back down where you found it."
He did that, and since then he has not been seen again. It may be that he has found redemption.
Of such plowmen it is said, that when any person came near, they compelled him to drive their horses; and if any one were so forced into their service, there was no other way to get free again than to take notice of the place where he began, and after the first turn to cast away the reins. He might then pursue his way unscathed.
Near Skive lies the manor of Krabbesholm, where there once dwelt a lady who wished to appropriate to herself an adjacent field, and therefore caused her overseer to put earth from the garden at Krabbesholm into his wooden shoes, with which he went to the field in dispute, and swore that he stood on the soil of Krabbesholm.
The field was adjudged to the lady, but afterwards the overseer could not die before she had given it back; yet he, nevertheless, every night still goes round the field with earth in his wooden shoes.
Three men belonging to Spandet, in North Schleswig, swore away the beautiful meadow of Elkjser from the village of Fjersted; in lieu of which the villagers got the inferior one of Sepkjser. They had also put earth in their shoes. After their death they were long to be seen wandering about the meadow, wringing their hands and crying:
Med Ret og Skjel,
Det ved vi vel,
Elkjær ligger til Fjersted By,
Sepkjær ligger til Spandet.
By law and right,
That know we well,
Elkjær belongs to Fjersted town,
Sepkjær belongs to Spandet.
Near Ebeltoft dwelt a peasant who possessed land and cattle in superabundance, paid taxes both to church and state, brought his tithes at the right time, gave to the poor, and went every Sunday to church; yet, notwithstanding all this, there was not an individual in the whole neighborhood that placed any real confidence in him.
He died and was buried, but after having lain in the earth until harvest time, he was heard at night crying piteously over the field, "Boundary here! boundary there!"
Now people discovered how in his lifetime he had acquired his wealth.
The fear that one's land might be stolen by a neighbor moving boundary stones or plowing into an adjoining field must have been fairly common in pre-industrial Europe, for there are many accounts, similar to the ones above, that assign dire supernatural punishment to those who attempt such dishonesty.
An important literary treatment of this deception (but without the supernatural consequences) is contained in the novella Romeo und Julia auf dem Dorfe (A Village Romeo and Juliet) by the Swiss writer Gottfried Keller. Click here for a link to this text (in German): Romeo und Julia auf dem Dorfe.
Revised June 9, 2011.