Richard Lee Moreland


Office:
3103 Sennott Square
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15260
Phone: (412) 624-4574
Fax: (412) 624-4428

cslewis@pitt.edu

Home:
408 Fern Hollow Lane
Wexford, PA 15090

Phone: (724) 935-4953

Academic Background:
I received my bachelor's degree (1973) in psychology from the University of Colorado, and my doctoral degree (1978) in social psychology from the University of Michigan. I am currently a Professor in the Psychology Department at the University of Pittsburgh, with a secondary appointment at the Katz Business School.

Professional Activities:
I am a member of the following professional organizations:

  • Academy of Management
  • American Psychological Association
    • Fellow of Divisions 8, 9, & 49
    • Member of Division 14
    • Council Member for Division 9 (1993-1996)
    • Council Member for Division 49 (1995-1998)
    • President (1999) of Division 49: Group Psychology & Group Psychotherapy
  • American Sociological Association
  • Association for Psychological Science (Fellow)
  • Midwestern Psychological Association
  • Society of Experimental Social Psychology (Fellow)

I have been an Associate Editor for Group Processes and Intergroup Relation, the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Management Science, the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Small Groups Research, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.   I am a Consulting Editor for Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, & Practice, the Journal of Organizational Behavior, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Organization Science.   Finally, I have reviewed papers for many journals, including:

  • Academy of Management Journal
  • Academy of Management Review
  • Administrative Science Quarterly
  • European Journal of Social Psychology
  • Journal of Applied Social Psychology
  • Psychological Bulletin
  • Psychological Review
  • Psychological Science
  • Social Cognition

John Levine and I were recently honored to receive the Joseph E. McGrath Lifetime Achievement Award for our work on small groups.  The award was presented to us by INGROUP, the interdisciplinary network for group research – an international, cross disciplinary association of social scientists who study groups.

Publications:.

Moreland, R. L.  (In Press).  Teaching people about groups.  Introduction to a special issue of Small Group Research, edited by R. L. Moreland.

 

Sayette, M. A., Creswell, K. G., DImoff, J. D., Fairbairn, C. E., Cohen, J. F., Heckman, T. R., Kirchner, T. R., Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L.  (In Press).  Alcohol and group formation:  A multimodal investigation of the effects of alcohol on emotion and social bonding.  Psychological Science.

 

Sayette, M. A., Dimoff, J. D., Levine, J. M., Moreland, R. L., & Votruba-Drzal, E.  (In Press).  The effects of alcohol and dosage-set on risk-seeking behavior in groups and individuals.  Journal of Addictive Behaviors.

 

Moreland. R. L.  (2013).  Group composition and diversity.  In J. Levine (Ed.), Group processe (pp. 11-32).  New York, NY:  Psychology Press.

 

Levine, J. M. & Moreland, R. L.  (2011).  A history of small group research.  In A. Kruglanski & W. Stroebe (Eds.), Handbook of the history of social psychology (pp. 233-255).  New York, NY:   Psychology Press.

 

Moreland, R. L. & McMinn, J. G.  (2010).  Group reflexivity and performance.  In S. R. Thye & E. Lawler (Eds.), Advances in group processes (Vol. 27, pp. 63-95).  Bingley, UK: Emerald Press.

 

Moreland, R. L. & Topolinski, S.  (2010).  The mere exposure phenomenon:  A lingering melody by Robert Zajonc.  Emotion Review, 2, 329-339.

Moreland, R. L., Swanenburg, K. L., Flagg, J. J., & Fetterman, J. D.  (2010).  Transactive memory and techonology in work groups and organizations.  In B. Ertl (Ed.), E-collaborative knowledge construction:  Learning from computer-supported and virtual environments (pp. 244-274).   Geneva:  IGI Global Press.

Brower, A. M., Keyton, J., & Moreland, R. L.  (2010).  The way we were.  Small Group Research, 41, 85-90.

Brower, A. M., Keyton, J., Moreland, R. L., & Peterson, R. S.  (2010).  Point/Counterpoint:  Introduction to SGR’s new feature.  Small Group Research, 41, 249-250.

Moreland, R. L.  (2010).  Are dyads really groups?  Small Group Research.

Hogg, M. A., Levine, J. M., Argote, A., Brewer, M. B., Dovidio, J. F., Kerr, N. L., Moreland, R. L., & Ridgeway, C. L. (Eds.) (2010).  Encyclopedia of group processes and intergroup relations. (Vols. 1 & 2).  Thousand Oaks, CA.:  Sage.  [See also my entries on group composition, group dissolution, and the ecology of groups].

Moreland, R. L., Fetterman, J. D., Flagg, J. J.., & Swanenburg, K. L.  (2010).  Behavioral assessment practices among social psychologists who study small groups.  In C. R. Agnew, D. E. Carlston, W. G. Graziano, & J. R. Kelly (Eds.), Then a miracle occurs:  Focusing on behavior in social psychological theory and research (pp. 28-56).  New York:  Oxford University Press.

Jackson, M., & Moreland, R. L.  (2009).  Transactive memory in the classrooom.  Small Group Research, 40, 508-534.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M.  (2009).  Building bridges to improve theory and research  on small groups.  In E. Salas, G. F. Goodwin, & S. Burke (Eds.), Team effectiveness in complex organizations:  Cross-disciplinary perspectives and approaches.  New York:  Psychology Press. 

Wittenbaum, G. M., & Moreland, R. L.  (2008).  Small group research in social psychology:  Topics and trends over time.  Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 187-208..

Kirchner, T. R., Sayette, M. A., Cohn, J. F., Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M.  (2006).  Effects of alcohol on group formation among male social drinkers.  Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 67, 785-793.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L.  (Eds.) (2006).  Small groups.  Philadelphia:  Psychology Press

Levine, J. M., Moreland, R. L., & Hausmann, L. M. R. (2005). Managing group composition: Inclusive and exclusive role transitions. In D. Abrams, J. M. Marques, & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion (pp. 137-160). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Poole, M. S., Hollingshead, A. B., McGrath, J. E., Moreland, R. L., & Rohrbaugh, J.  (2005).  Interdisciplinary perspectives on small groups.  In M. S. Poole & A. B. Hollinghead (Eds.), Theories of small groups:  Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 1-20).  Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.

Arrow, H., Henry, K. B., Poole, M. S., Wheelan, S., & Moreland, R. L.  (2005).  Traces, trajectories, and timing:  The temporal perspective on groups.  In M. S. Poole & A. B. Hollinghead (Eds.), Theories of small groups:  Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 313-368).  Thousand Oaks, CA.:  Sage.

Sayette, M. A., Kirchner, T., Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (2004). The effects of alcohol on risk-seeking: A group-level analysis. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 190-193.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (2004). Collaboration: The social context of theory development.  Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 164-172.

Poole, M.S., Hollingshead, A. B., McGrath, J. E., Moreland, R. L., & Rohrbaugh, J. (2004). Interdisciplinary perspectives on small groups. Small Group Research, 35, 3-16.

Arrow, H., Poole, M. S., Henry, K. B., Wheelan, S., & Moreland, R. L. (2004).  Time, change, and development: Temporal perspectives on groups. Small Group Research, 35, 73-105.

Moreland, R. L., & McMinn, J. G. (2004). Entitativity and social integration: Managing beliefs about the reality of groups. In V. Yzerbyt, C. Judd, & O. Corneille (Eds.), The psychology of group perception: Perceived variability, entitativity, and essentialism (pp. 419-437).   Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (2003). Group composition: Explaining similarities and differences among group members. In M. A. Hogg & J. Cooper (Eds.), Sage handbook of social psychology (pp. 367-380). London: Sage.

Moreland, R. L., & Argote, L. (2003). Transactive memory in dynamic organizations. In R. Peterson & E. Mannix (Eds.), Leading and managing people in the dynamic organization (pp. 135-162). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Levine, J. M., Choi, H-S., & Moreland, R. L. (2003). Newcomer innovation in work teams. In P. Paulus & B. Nijstad (Eds.), Group creativity: Innovation through collaboration (pp. 202-224).New York: Oxford University Press.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (2002). Group reactions to loyalty and disloyalty. In S. Thye & E. Lawler (Eds.), Group cohesion, trust, and solidarity (pp. 203-228).. New York: Elsevier Science.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (2002). Socialization and trust in work groups. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 5, 185-201.

Moreland, R. L., Levine, J. M., & McMinn, J. G. (2001). Self-categorization and work group socialization. In M. Hogg & D. Terry (Eds.), Socil identity processes in organizational contexts (pp. 87-100). Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Levine, J. M., Moreland, R. L., & Choi, H-S. (2001). Group socialization and newcomer innovation. In M. Hogg & S. Tindale (Eds.), Blackwell handbook in social psychology (Vol. 3): Group processes (pp. 86-106). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Limited.

Argote, L., Ingram, P., Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (Eds.) (2000). The psychological foundations of knowledge transfer in organizations. A special issue of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

Argote, L., Ingram, P., Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (2000). Knowledge transfer in organizations: Learning from the experience of others, 82, 1-8.

Moreland, R. L., & Myaskovsky, L. (2000). Explaining the performance benefits of group training: Transactive memory or improved communication? Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 82,117-133.

Moreland, R. L. & Levine, J. M. (2000). Socialization in organizations and work groups. In M. Turner (Ed.), Groups at work: Theory and research (pp. 69-112). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Moreland, R. L., & McMinn, J. G. (1999). Views from a distant shore: A social psychological perspective on group psychotherapy. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3, 15-19.

Moreland, R. L., & McMinn, J. G. (1999). Gone, but not forgotten: Loyalty and betrayal among ex-members of small groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1484-1494.

Moreland, R. L. (1999). Transactive memory: Learning who knows what in work groups and organizations. In L. Thompson, J. Levine, & D. Messick (Eds.), Shared cognition in organizations: The management of knowledge (pp. 3-31). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1999). Knowledge transmission in work groups: Helping newcomers to succeed. In L. Thompson, J. Levine, & D. Messick, (Eds.), Shared cognition in organizations: The management of knowledge (pp. 267-296). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Moreland, R. L. (1999). Evaluating students' research experiences via credit slips. In G. Castain & R. E. Landrum (Eds.), Protecting human subjects: Departmental subject pools and institutional review boards (pp. 87-108). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press.

Moreland, R. L., Argote, L., & Krishnan, R. (1998). Training people to work in groups. In R. S. Tindale & Colleagues (Eds.), Theory and research on small groups (pp. 37-60). New York: Plenum Press.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1998). Small groups. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th. ed., Vol. 2, pp. 415-469). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Levine, J. M., Moreland, R. L., & Ryan, C. (1997). Group socialization and intergroup relations. In C. Sedikides, J. Schopler, & C. Insko (Eds.), Intergroup cognition and intergroup behavior (pp. 283-308). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Moreland, R. L., Argote, L., & Krishnan, R. (1996). Socially shared cognition at work: Transactive memory and group performance. In J. L. Nye & A. M. Brower (Eds.), What's social about social cognition? Research on socially shared cognition in small groups (pp. 57-84). Thousand Parks, CA.: Sage.

Moreland, R. L. (1996). Lewin's legacy for small groups research. Systems Practice, 9, 7-26. (Special issue of the journal, edited by S. Wheelan, devoted to Kurt Lewin).

Moreland, R. L. (1996). Review of P. 't Hart's "Groupthink in government: A study of small groups and policy failure." Political Psychology, 17, 609-613.

Moreland, R. L., Levine, J. M., & Wingert, M. L. (1996). Creating the ideal group: Composition effects at work. In J. Davis & E. Witte (Eds.), Understanding group behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 11-35). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Liang, D. W., Moreland, R. L., & Argote, L. (1995). Group versus individual training and group performance: The mediating role of transactive memory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 384-393.

Moreland, R. L., Hogg, M. A., & Hains, S. (1994). Back to the future: Social psychological research on groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 527-555.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1994) Group processes. In A. Tesser (Ed.), Advanced social psychology (pp. 419-465). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1994). Group socialization: Theory and research. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European review of social psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 305-336). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Haunschild, P. R., Moreland, R. L., & Murrell, A. J. (1994). Sources of resistance to mergers between groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1150-1178.

Cini, M., Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1993) Group staffing levels and responses to prospective and new group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 723-734.

Moreland, R. L., Levine, J. M., & Cini, M. A. (1993). Group socialization: The role of commitment. In M. Hogg & D. Abrams (Eds.), Group motivation: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 105-129). London: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.

Hogg, M., & Moreland, R. L. (Eds.) (1993) Social processes in small groups. Two special issues (32:1,2) of the British Journal of Social Psychology.

Moreland, R. L., & Hogg, M. (1993) Theoretical perspectives on social processes in small groups. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 1-4.

Hogg, M., & Moreland, R. L. (1993) Studying social processes in small groups. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 107-110.

Moreland, R. L. (1993). As above, so below -- a review of S. Long's "A structural analysis of small groups." Contemporary Psychology, 38, 367-368.

Moreland, R. L., & Beach, S. (1992) Exposure effects in the classroom: The development of affinity among students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 255-276.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1992). Problem identification by groups. In S. Worchel, W. Wood, & J. Simpson (Eds.), Group process and productivity (pp. 17-48). Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1992). The composition of small groups. In E. Lawler, B. Markovsky, C. Ridgeway, & H. Walker (Eds.), Advances in group processes (Vol. 9, pp. 237-280). Greenwich, CT.: JAI Press.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1992). Small groups and mental health. In D. Ruble, P. Costanzo, & M. Oliveri (Eds.), The social psychology of mental health (pp. 126-165). New York: Guilford Press.

Zajonc, R. B., Markus, G. B., Berbaum, M. L., Bargh, J., & Moreland, R. L. (1991). One justified criticism plus three flawed analyses equals two unwarranted conclusions: A reply to Retherford and Sewell. American Sociological Review, 56, 159-165.

Brinthaupt, T., Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1991). Sources of optimism among prospective group members. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 36-43.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1991) Culture and socialization in work groups. In L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, & S. D. Teasdale (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 257-279). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Moreland, R. L. (1991). We think, therefore we are -- a review of D. Bar-Tal's "Group beliefs: A conception for analyzing group structure, processes, and behavior." Contemporary Psychology, 36, 606-607.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1990). Progress in small group research. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 585-634.

Moreland, R. L., & Brinthaupt, T. M. (1990). Understanding a group. In R. J. Brown (Ed.), How groups work. New York: Marshall Cavendish.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1989). Newcomers and oldtimers in small groups. In P. Paulus (Ed.), Psychology of group influence (2nd ed., pp. 143-186). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1989). Social values and multiple outcome comparisons. In N. Eisenberg, J. Reykowski, & E. Staub (Eds.), Social and moral values: Individual and societal perspectives (pp. 195-210). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Hughson, T. L., Fichman, M., & Moreland, R. L. (1989). Social loafing and social facilitation: An empirical test of a cognitive-motivational model of performance. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 10, 253-271.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1988) Group dynamics over time: Development and socialization in small groups. In J. McGrath (Ed.), The social psychology of time: New perspectives (pp. 151-181). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1987). Social comparison and outcome evaluation in group contexts. In J. C. Masters & W. P. Smith (Eds.), Social comparison, social justice, and relative deprivation: Theoretical, empirical, and policy perspectives (pp. 105-127). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Moreland, R. L. (1987). The formation of small groups. In C. Hendrick (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 80-110). Newbury Park, CA.: Sage.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1986). Outcome comparisons in group contexts: Consequences for the self and others. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-related cognitions in anxiety and motivation (pp. 285-303). Hillsdale, NJ; Erlbaum.

Pavelchak, M., Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1986). Effects of prior group memberships on subsequent reconnaissance activities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 56-66.

Berbaum, M. L., Moreland, R. L., & Zajonc, R. B. (1986). Contentions over the confluence model: A reply to Price, Walsh, and Vilburg. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 270-274.

Moreland, R. L. (1985) Birth order. In A. Kuper & J. Kuper (Eds.), The social science encyclopedia. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1985). Innovation and socialization in small groups. In S. Moscovici, G. Mugny, & E. van Avermaet (Eds.), Perspectives on minority influence (pp. 141-169). Cambridge: Cambridge Press.

Moreland, R. L. (1985). Social categorization and the assimilation of "new" group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1173-1190. [Reprinted in 2002 in M. Hogg (Ed.), Sage benchmarks in psychology: Social psychology. London: Sage Publications].

Berbaum, M. L., & Moreland, R. L. (1985). Intellectual development within transracial adoptive families: Retesting the confluence model. Child Development, 56, 207-216.

Markus, H., Smith, J., & Moreland, R. L. (1985). Role of the self-concept in the perception of others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1494-1512.

Moreland, R. L., & Sweeney, P. D. (1984). Self-expectancies and reactions to evaluations of personal performance. Journal of Personality, 52, 156-176.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1984). Role transitions in small groups. In V. Allen & E. van de Vliert (Eds.), Role transitions: Explorations and explanations (pp. 181-195). New York: Plenum.

Carretta, T., & Moreland, R. L. (1983). The direct and indirect effects of inadmissible evidence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 13, 291-309.

Moreland, R. L., & Berbaum, M. L. (1982). Terrorism and the mass media: A researcher's bibliography. In A. H. Miller (Ed)., Terrorism, the media, and the law (pp. 191-215). Dobbs Ferry, New York: Transnational Publishers.

Sweeney, P. D., Moreland, R. L., & Gruber, K. L. (1982). Gender differences in performance attributions: Students' explanations for personal success or failure. Sex Roles, 8, 359-373.

Carretta, T., & Moreland, R. L. (1982). Nixon and Watergate: A field demonstration of belief perseverance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 446-453.

Moreland, R. L., & Zajonc, R. B. (1982). Exposure effects in person perception: Familiarity, similarity, and attraction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 395-415.

Moreland, R. L., & Levine, J. M. (1982). Socialization in small groups: Temporal changes in individual-group relations. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 15, pp. 137-192). New York: Academic Press.

Moreland, R. L., Miller, J., & Laucka, F. (1981). Academic achievement and self-evaluations of academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 335-344.

Moreland, R. L. (1980). Review of S. Streufert and S. Streufert's "Behavior in the complex environment." British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 54-55.

Berbaum, M. L., & Moreland, R. L. (1980). Intellectual development within the family: A new application of the confluence model. Developmental Psychology, 16, 506-515.

Zajonc, R. B., Berbaum, M. L., Hammill, R., Moreland, R. L., & Akeju, S. A. (1980). Family factors and the intellectual performance of Nigerian eleven-year-olds. West African Journal of Educational and Vocational Measurement, 5, 19-26.

Moreland, R. L., & Zajonc, R. B. (1979). Stimulus recognition may not mediate exposure effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1985-1989.

Moreland, R. L., & Zajonc, R. B. (1977). Is stimulus recognition a necessary condition for the occurrence of exposure effects? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 191-199.

Moreland, R. L., & Zajonc, R. B. (1976). A strong test of exposure effects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 170-179.

Presentations:
I have spoken about my work on small groups at many scientific conferences and at several universities. I have also conducted workshops on group dynamics for government agencies and private foundations.


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